Author: Alex

Windows stopped booting in Virtual Machine after upgrading to VirtualBox 7 (SOLVED)

After upgrading to VirtualBox 7 (more precisely, to VirtualBox 7.0.2), the Windows 11 guest OS stopped booting.

Windows 11 guest boot starts as usual, no errors are displayed. Moreover, you can hear the Windows logon sound, but the desktop is not shown.

Boot freezes on the initial screen with UEFI messages.

As a host (main) OS, I use Linux, namely Arch Linux.

The problem was solved in the following way:

1. Shut down the guest OS

2. Go to its settings → Display.

Uncheck “Enable 3D Acceleration”.

3. Boot guest OS with Windows as usual

4. Update Guest Additions.

5. After that, you can again activate the “Enable 3D Acceleration” setting – the guest system will boot without errors.

Hangups while updating Guest Additions

One of the innovations of VirtualBox 7 is the automatic updating of the Guest Addition.

But in my case, after inserting Guest Additions CD image, an error occurred and the virtual computer hung.

In addition to the problem discussed just above, I noticed that the Windows guest OS, after inserting the “Guest Additions CD image”, tried to update them on its own. This led to endless freezes and the need to force a reboot of the guest OS.

Finally, the problem was solved in the following way:

1. Remove Guest Additions (if your guest OS keeps freezing then boot into safe mode)

2. Restart your computer

3. Reinstall the Guest Additions

4. Restart the computer again

Should I upgrade to VirtualBox 7?

At the time of writing, the latest stable version is VirtualBox 7.0.2, which was released just a few days after the release of the first stable version of VirtualBox 7.

However, according to my observations, Windows 11 is still unstable in VirtualBox 7.0.2.

Although VirtualBox 7 brings significant updates, they are not in demand by most users who run virtual machines in VirtualBox. If you do not see anything important in the changelog in VirtualBox 7, then I would recommend waiting a few months before upgrading. During this time, more problems and bugs will be fixed.

See also: Some program areas become transparent or invisible in guest OS Windows after upgrading to VirtualBox 7 (SOLVED)

How to rename a table in phpMyAdmin and MySQL

How to rename a table in phpMyAdmin

Open the database and then navigate to the table you want to rename.

When the table is open, select the “Operations” menu item.

Locate the “Move table to (database.table)” section. Yes, renaming uses the same function as moving a table to another database.

Enter a new table name and click the “Go” button.

Now the table has been given a new name.

How to rename a table in MySQL

To connect to MySQL or MariaDB DBMS on localhost without a password, use the command:

mysql -u root

To connect to MySQL or MariaDB DBMS on localhost with a password, use the command:

mysql -u root -p

Note that you do not need to specify a password after the -p option – you will need to enter the password at the command prompt.

If you are connecting to a remote server, then you can also use the -h (or --host=NAME) option with the host name or IP address.

After connecting to MySQL/MariaDB you can use the following command:

RENAME TABLE `DATABASE`.`TABLE NAME` TO `DATABASE`.`NEW TABLE NAME`;

You can also choose which database to use and leave out the database name next to the table name:

USE `DATABASE`;
RENAME TABLE `TABLE NAME` TO `NEW TABLE NAME`;

An example of renaming a table in MySQL:

RENAME TABLE `test`.`OLD NAME` TO `test`.`NEW NAME`;

An example of renaming a table in MySQL with database preselection:

USE `test`;
RENAME TABLE `OLD NAME` TO `NEW NAME`;

To list tables, use the following SQL query:

SHOW TABLES;

phpMyAdmin error “Error: Undefined constant “SODIUM_CRYPTO_SECRETBOX_KEYBYTES”” (SOLVED)

On Arch Linux, when trying to use the phpMyAdmin 5.3 pre-release, I encountered an error:

Error: Undefined constant "SODIUM_CRYPTO_SECRETBOX_KEYBYTES"

Checking in Debian showed that there is no such problem with phpMyAdmin 5.3.

The reason for the error is that sodium support is not enabled.

How to enable sodium on Arch Linux (Manjaro, BlackArch)

To enable sodium support in Arch Linux and derivative distributions (Manjaro, BlackArch) follow these steps.

Install the php-sodium package:

sudo pacman -S php-sodium

Open the /etc/php/php.ini file:

sudo gedit /etc/php/php.ini

Find the line in it

;extension=sodium

and uncomment it to get:

extension=sodium

Restart the web server for the changes to take effect:

sudo systemctl restart httpd.service

This will enable sodium support and the error in phpMyAdmin 5.3 will disappear.

Sitemap.xml files: what they are for, how to use them, and how to bypass “Too many URLs” error and size limits

Table of contents

  1. What are Sitemaps
  2. What are the restrictions for sitemap files
  3. How can you compress a sitemap file
  4. Can I use multiple sitemaps?
  5. What is the structure of sitemap files
  6. How to generate sitemap files
  7. How to Import a Sitemap into Google Search Console
  8. Sitemap.xml file status “Couldn't fetch”
  9. Is it necessary to use the sitemap.xml file?
  10. What to do if the sitemap contains an error. How to remove a sitemap file from Google Search Console

What are Sitemaps

Sitemaps are XML-formatted files that contain a list of the URLs of your site's pages for submission to the Google search engine so that it can quickly find out and index them.

What are the restrictions for sitemap files

  1. The file size should not be more than 50 MB
  2. There can be no more than 50,000 links in one file

How can you compress a sitemap file

In addition to the simple text format with XML markup, the file can be compressed into a .gz archive. In this case, the file size decreases dramatically because text files compress very well. For example, my 25 MB file was compressed into a 500 KB file.

To do this, it is enough to compress the original sitemap.xml file into .gz format. As a link in Google Search Console, you need to specify the path to the archive, for example: https://site.net/sitemap.xml.gz

If, when you try to open the https://site.net/sitemap.xml.gz file in a web browser, it downloads it to your computer instead of showing the content as for the sitemap.xml file, then this is normal. Either way, Google Search Console will be able to process this file.

Can I use multiple sitemaps?

For each site or domain resource, you can create multiple Sitemaps and import them all into Google Search Console – this is not only allowed, but also recommended by Google itself for sitemaps that are too large.

If there are many Sitemap files, then a complete list of them can be collected in a separate Sitemap file. This file is called “Sitemap Index File”. An example of the content of the sitemap.xml file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<sitemapindex xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
	<sitemap>
		<loc>https://site.net/sitemaps/sitemap_1.xml</loc>
	</sitemap>
	<sitemap>
		<loc>https://site.net/sitemaps/sitemap_2.xml</loc>
	</sitemap>
	<sitemap>
		<loc>https://site.net/sitemaps/sitemap_3.xml</loc>
	</sitemap>
</sitemapindex>

After that, it is enough to import this main file into Google Search Console.

The rest of the sitemaps listed in the main index file will automatically be imported into the Google Search Console.

To see them, click on the file name. You will see a list of imported Sitemaps.

You need to wait before these files are processed and their status changes to “Success”.

What is the structure of sitemap files

Sitemap files have the following structure:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
	<url>
		<loc>https://domain.site.net/?p=1</loc>
		<lastmod>2022-10-08T14:14:27+00:00</lastmod>
		<changefreq>monthly</changefreq>
		<priority>0.8</priority>
	</url>
<url>
	<loc>https://domain.site.net/?p=2</loc>
		<lastmod>2022-10-08T14:14:27+00:00</lastmod>
		<changefreq>monthly</changefreq>
		<priority>0.8</priority>
	</url>
	<url>
		<loc>https://domain.site.net/?p=3</loc>
		<lastmod>2022-10-08T14:14:27+00:00</lastmod>
		<changefreq>monthly</changefreq>
		<priority>0.8</priority>
	</url>
</urlset>

Each entry consists of four elements:

  1. URL
  2. Date of last modification
  3. Frequency of modification (e.g. monthly)
  4. A priority

How to generate sitemap files

If you are using WordPress, then the easiest way is to install a sitemap plugin.

If there is no sitemap plugin for your site engine, then it is quite easy to generate it yourself, since it is just a text file with XML markup.

How to Import a Sitemap into Google Search Console

Go to Google Search Console, select the site you want to report the Sitemap for, enter the URL of the Sitemap.

Sitemap.xml file status “Couldn't fetch”

At first, an inscription may appear that the sitemap.xml file “Couldn't fetch”. This inscription appears even if everything is alright with the sitemap.xml file. You just need to wait a little.

The bottom line is that this inscription does not mean that there are problems with the sitemap.xml file. It's just that the turn to analyze this file has not yet come.

A little later, the status of the file will change to “Successful”. At the same time, it will show how many URLs were revealed thanks to this file.

Even later, you can view the link indexing report from the sitemap.xml file.

Is it necessary to use the sitemap.xml file?

In fact, I don't usually use a sitemap.xml file. I add articles to most sites manually and, in my opinion, the sitemap.xml file is not particularly needed, since pages on such sites are indexed very quickly.

But if you're unhappy with your site's indexing speed, or need to quickly report a large number of URLs to be indexed, then try using sitemap.xml files.

What to do if the sitemap contains an error. How to remove a sitemap file from Google Search Console

If, after trying to process the Sitemap, you find that it contains errors (for example, an incorrect date format or broken links), then you do not have to wait until the time comes for the next crawling.

You can delete a Sitemap from Google Search Console and add it again right away. After that, quite quickly (within a few minutes), Google will check the Sitemap file again.

To remove a Sitemap file from Google Search, click on it. On the page that opens, in the upper right corner, find the button with three horizontal dots. Click it and select “Remove sitemap”.

After that, the Sitemap file will be deleted and you, after correcting errors in it, can immediately re-add the Sitemap file with the same or a different URL.

How to prevent Tor users from viewing or commenting on a WordPress site

The Tor network is an important tool for anonymity, privacy, and censorship circumvention, which in some countries is being fought even at the state level.

But Tor is a public tool, so it can sometimes be used for online trolling and bullying. This article will show you how:

  • prevent Tor users from commenting on your WordPress site
  • prevent Tor users from registering and logging into the site
  • prevent Tor users from viewing WordPress site

WordPress plugin to control allowed actions from the Tor network

VigilanTor is a free WordPress plugin that can block comments, browsing, and registration for Tor users.

This plugin automatically updates the list of IP addresses of the Tor network and, after configuration, automatically controls and blocks Tor users.

To install VigilanTor, go to WordPress Admin Panel → Plugins → Add New.

Search for “VigilanTor”, install and activate it.

Then go to Settings →VigilanTor Settings.

We will perform all subsequent actions on the plugin settings page.

How to disable commenting on a site from Tor

Enable two settings:

  • Block Tor users from commenting (prevent Tor users from commenting your WordPress site)
  • Hide comment form from Tor users

Now Tor users will still be able to view your site, but when they try to leave a comment, they will receive a message:

Error: You appear to be commenting from a Tor IP address which is not allowed.

How to prevent Tor users from registering and logging into the site

To prevent Tor users from registering on a WordPress site and preventing registered users from logging in from the Tor network, enable the following settings:

  • Block Tor users from registering
  • Flag users who signed up using Tor
  • Block Tor users from logging in (Useful for preventing brute for attacks)

How to Block Tor Users from Viewing a WordPress Site

Enable setting:

  • Block Tor users from all of WordPress

This setting will prevent any activity, including logging into the site, commenting, and browsing.

When trying to open a site in Tor, the user will receive a message:

Sorry, you cannot access this website using Tor.

How often does VigilanTor update the list of Tor IP addresses

The Tor network often changes IP addresses, that is, new ones are added, and old ones are removed. Once downloaded, the Tor network IP list becomes obsolete over time.

VigilanTor automatically downloads the list of Tor IP addresses and updates it automatically.

By default, the update is performed every 10 minutes. You can increase this interval to 6 hours, or enable real-time updates.

How to enable DNS over HTTPS in Windows 11

To improve your online privacy and security, Windows 11 lets you use DNS over HTTPS (DoH) to encrypt the DNS requests your computer makes when you browse or do anything else on the Internet. This article will show you how to set it up in Windows 11.

Encrypted DNS is more private and secure

Every time you visit a website using a domain name (such as “suay.site”), your computer sends a request to a Domain Name System (DNS) server. The DNS server takes the domain name and looks up the corresponding IP address from the list. It sends an IP address back to your computer, which is then used to connect to the site.

See also: How to enable DNS over HTTPS and what it is for

This process of getting the resolution of a domain name to an IP address traditionally took place on the network in the plain text. Any intermediate point can intercept the transmitted information – the domain names of the sites you visit and their IPs. With DNS over HTTPS, also known as DoH, communication between your computer and a DoH-enabled DNS server is encrypted. No one can intercept your DNS requests to track the addresses you visit or spoof responses from a DNS server.

First, choose a free DNS with DoH support – there are already a lot of them now

Starting with the release of Windows 11, DNS over HTTPS in Windows 11 only works with a certain hard-coded list of free DNS services (you can see the list yourself by running

netsh dns show encryption

in the terminal window).

Here is the current list of supported IPv4 DNS server addresses as of October 2022:

  • Primary Google DNS: 8.8.8.8
  • Additional Google DNS: 8.8.4.4
  • Cloudflare Primary DNS: 1.1.1.1
  • Secondary DNS Cloudflare: 1.0.0.1
  • Primary DNS Quad9: 9.9.9.9
  • Secondary DNS Quad9: 149.112.112.112

For IPv6, list of supported DNS server addresses:

  • Primary Google DNS: 2001:4860:4860::8888
  • Google Secondary DNS: 2001:4860:4860::8844
  • Cloudflare primary DNS server: 2606:4700:4700::1111
  • Additional Cloudflare DNS: 2606:4700:4700::1001
  • Primary DNS Quad9: 2620:fe::fe
  • Secondary DNS Quad9: 2620:fe::fe:9

When it comes time to enable DoH in the section below, you will need to select two pairs of these DNS servers – primary and secondary for IPv4 and IPv6 – to use with your Windows 11 PC. As a bonus, using them will likely speed up your Internet experience.

Enable DNS over HTTPS in Windows 11

To start configuring DNS over HTTPS, open the Settings app by pressing Win+i on your keyboard. Alternatively, you can right-click the Start button and select “Settings” from the special menu that appears.

In Settings, click “Network & internet” in the sidebar.

For “Wi-Fi” and “Ethernet”, the procedure for setting up DNS over HTTPS is slightly different.

Configuring DNS over HTTPS for Ethernet (Wired)

In Network & internet, click the name of your primary Internet connection in the list, such as “Ethernet”.

On the Ethernet properties page, find the “DNS server assignment” setting and click the “Edit” button next to it.

In the window that appears, select “Manual” DNS settings from the drop-down menu.

Then turn the “IPv4” switch to the “On” position.

In the IPv4 section, enter the primary DNS server address you selected in the section above in the “Preferred DNS” field (for example, “8.8.8.8”).

The drop-down list “Preferred DNS encryption” will become active. In this list, select “Encrypted only (DNS over HTTPS)”.

Similarly, enter the address of the secondary DNS server in the “Alternate DNS” field (for example, “8.8.4.4”). The drop-down list “Preferred DNS encryption” will become active. In this list, select “Encrypted only (DNS over HTTPS)”.

If your ISP supports IPv6, then repeat this process with IPv6. If your ISP does NOT support IPv6, then you DO NOT need to enable IPv6 DNS servers. If you're unsure, it's best not to enable IPv6 DNS.

Switch the IPv6 switch to the On position, and then copy the primary IPv6 address from the section above and paste it into the “Preferred DNS” field. Then copy the appropriate secondary IPv6 address and paste it into the “Alternate DNS” field.

After that, set both “Preferred DNS encryption” options to “Encrypted only (DNS over HTTPS)”.

Finally, click “Save”.

Back on the Ethernet hardware properties page, you'll see a list of your DNS servers with “(Encrypted)” marked next to each one.

Configuring DNS over HTTPS for Wi-Fi (Wireless)

In Network & internet settings, click the name of your primary Internet connection in the list, such as Wi-Fi.

On the Wi-Fi properties page, go to the “Hardware properties” section.

On the next window, locate the “DNS server assignment” option and click the “Change” button next to it.

In the window that appears, select “Manual” DNS settings from the drop-down menu. Then turn the “IPv4” switch to the “On” position.

In the IPv4 section, enter the primary DNS server address you selected in the section above in the “Preferred DNS” field (for example, “8.8.8.8”).

The drop-down list “Preferred DNS encryption” will become active. In this list, select “Encrypted only (DNS over HTTPS)”.

Tip: If you don't see the “Preferred DNS encryption” settings, then you are editing the DNS settings for a specific Wi-Fi connection and not for the wireless adapter as a whole. Make sure you have selected the connection type in Settings → Network & internet, then click “Hardware properties” first.

Similarly, enter the address of the secondary DNS server in the “Alternate DNS” field (for example, “8.8.4.4”).

If your ISP supports IPv6, then repeat this process with IPv6. If your ISP does NOT support IPv6, then you DO NOT need to enable IPv6 DNS servers. If you're unsure, it's best not to enable IPv6 DNS.

Switch the IPv6 switch to the On position, and then copy the primary IPv6 address from the section above and paste it into the “Preferred DNS” field. Then copy the appropriate secondary IPv6 address and paste it into the “Alternate DNS” field.

After that, set both “Preferred DNS encryption” options to “Encrypted only (DNS over HTTPS)”.

Finally, click “Save”.

Back on the Wi-Fi hardware properties page, you'll see a list of your DNS servers with “(Encrypted)” marked next to each one.

That's all you need to do. Close the Settings app, and you are ready to go. From now on, all your DNS requests will be private and secure. Happy viewing!

Note. If you're having network problems after changing these settings, make sure you've entered the correct IP addresses. An incorrect IP address can cause DNS servers to be unavailable. If the addresses are entered correctly, try disabling the “IPv6” switch in the list of DNS servers. If you are configuring IPv6 DNS servers on a computer that is not connected to IPv6, this can cause connectivity issues.

Error “error: GPGME error: No data. error: failed to synchronize all databases (unexpected error)” (SOLVED)

When updating the package cache with the pacman package manager, for example, when running the following command to update package information and update the system:

sudo pacman -Syu

An error may occur:

error: GPGME error: No data
:: Synchronizing package databases...
 core                  155.5 KiB   444 KiB/s 00:00 [######################] 100%
 extra is up to date
 community is up to date
 multilib is up to date
 blackarch is up to date
error: GPGME error: No data
error: failed to synchronize all databases (unexpected error)

To fix the error, run the following command:

sudo rm -R /var/lib/pacman/sync

And then run the system update command again:

sudo pacman -Syu

This time the error should be gone.

Cause “error: GPGME error: No data. error: failed to synchronize all databases (unexpected error)” may be the following situation: you have exhausted the limit of your Internet connection and instead of the requested data, your Internet provider shows its page with information about the need to replenish the balance. As a result, incorrect data is sent in response to outgoing Internet connections, although the connection is successful from the point of view of the computer.

That is, pacman asks for information about the packages, but the ISP sends the data to show the Captive Portal. As a result of this, pacman has the indicated error. To fix it, you need to delete the cached data, which is done by the above command.

How to increase the color (saturation) of images, how to make a photo warmer or colder

You have probably noticed that other people's photographs can look very beautiful: incredible colors and shades, the landscape seems to be from a postcard.

You might think that it's all about some very expensive camera, the outstanding talent of a photographer, or incomprehensible skills in photo processing. All this can take place, but in fact, you can turn an ordinary photo into a very juicy and bright one with just one slider in the photo editor.

For this post, I'll be using the free and open source GIMP image editor. But in fact, you can find a similar function in other paid and free programs. You can transform your photos in photo editors on mobile phones as well.

How to enhance the color of an image. How to make colors vibrant

In GIMP, go to Color → Hue-Saturation.

Here you will see only one “Scale” slider.

Moving to the right will make the colors more saturated.

Original image:

Image with high saturation:

Original image:

Image with high saturation:

Original image:

Image with high saturation:

Perhaps I do not know the measures (I set the saturation almost to the maximum), and the photos became too colorful. You can change the saturation according to your taste and artistic intent.

How to make a photo warmer or colder

A warmer photo has more yellowness, a colder photo has more blueness.

Changing the temperature of a photo also greatly changes its perception.

To change the temperature of a photo in GIMP, go to Color → Color Temperature.

Here you will see two sliders “Original temperature” and “Intended temperature”. experiment with both of them.

Original Image:

Image in warm colors:

Image in cold colors:

Changes in shadows and light

Let’s consider how to emphasize the shadows and light sources in the photo.

From the GIMP menu, go to Color → Shadows-Highlights.

Here you can increase or decrease the shadows in the photo, as well as increase or decrease the intensity of the light source.

For example, reducing the amount of light:

Original Image:

Look how expressive and even menacing the clouds have become:

In the following example, the amount of light is added:

Original Image:

And now the clouds have become shining like in a biblical parable:

Experiment with color!

I guess you agree that the simplest manipulations shown above with literally one settings slider can significantly change the impression of a photo. The pictures have become noticeably more spectacular, but at the same time they have not lost their realism.

The GIMP Preferences menu under Color has other settings you can try.

Pay special attention to “Brightness”, “Contrast”, “Exposure”. With them, you can change the impression of the photo.

How to prevent search engines from indexing only the main page of the site

To prevent search engines from indexing only the main page, while allowing indexing of all other pages, you can use several approaches, depending on the characteristics of a particular site.

1. Using the robots.txt file

If the main page has its own address (usually it is index.php, index.html, index.htm, main.html and so on), and while trying to open a link like w-e-b.site/ a website redirects to the main page, for example, to w-e-b.site/index.htm, then you can use the robots.txt file with something like the following content:

User-agent: *
Disallow: /index.php
Disallow: /index.html
Disallow: /index.htm
Disallow: /main.html

In fact, using an explicit name for the main page is the exception rather than the rule. So let's look at other options.

You can use the following approach:

  1. Deny site-wide access with the “Disallow” directive.
  2. Then allow the indexing of the entire site using the “Allow” directive, except for the main page.

Sample robots.txt file:

User-agent: *
Allow: ?p=
Disallow: /

The “Allow” directive must always come before “Disallow”. The “Allow” directive allows all pages with a URL like “?p=”, and the “Disallow” directive disables all pages. As a result, the following result is obtained: indexing of the entire site (including the main page) is prohibited, except for pages with an address like “?p=”.

Let's look at the result of checking two URLs:

  • https://suay.ru/ (main page) – indexing is prohibited
  • https://suay.ru/?p=790#6 (article page) – indexing allowed

In the screenshot, number 1 marks the contents of the robots.txt file, number 2 is the URL being checked, and number 3 is the result of the check.

2. Using the robots meta tag

If your site is separate files, then add the robots meta tag to the HTML code of the main page file:

<meta name="robots" content="noindex,nofollow>

3. With .htaccess and mod_rewrite

Using .htaccess and mod_rewrite, you can block access to a specific file as follows:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Google [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Yandex [NC]
RewriteRule (index.php)|(index.htm)|(index.html) - [F]

Please note that when you try to open a link like https://w-e-b.site/ (that is, without specifying the name of the main page), a specific file is still requested on the web server side, for example, index.php, index.htm or index. html. Therefore, this method of blocking access (and, accordingly, indexing) works even if the main page of your site opens without specifying a specific file name (index.php, index.html, index.htm, main.html, and so on), as is usually the case.

How to downgrade to a previous kernel version in Arch Linux. How to install and switch to linux-lts

New Linux kernels bring support for new hardware and new features. But sometimes the kernel causes problems: it is completely or partially incompatible with existing software, especially video drivers suffer from this, but this can also apply to any other software, for example, VirtualBox.

At the time of the release of the linux 5.9 kernel, NVIDIA drivers were partially incompatible with it, as a result, their important functionality was lost. Although the graphics card worked, but CUDA, OpenCL and probably other features are broken. Of course, this was fixed pretty quickly, but what about those who needed CUDA and OpenCL or other programs that were incompatible with the latest version of the Linux kernel at the time of the problem?

A very recent example, the linux 5.19 kernel at the time of writing is not compatible with the latest version of VirtualBox, which just doesn't work. The problem will be fixed in the near future, but what if you need running VirtualBox machines right now?

One option is to rollback to a previous version by installing it from the downloaded package cache. The method is not the most pleasant, since it will be necessary to prohibit updating the package, the version of which was rolled back, or even refuse to update the entire system.

This method is especially annoying when it comes to the linux kernel – you also need to do something with dependencies.

One of the easier options is to switch to the linux-lts kernel.

How to install linux-lts

LTS – stands for Long Time Support. Simply put, this is a Linux kernel and modules from one of the previous versions, which is rarely updated.

This kernel can be installed as a regular package, replacing the existing kernel. Depending on your computer configuration, you may need to install other *-lts packages, such as the nvidia-lts package, an NVIDIA video driver for the linux-lts kernel.

Also install linux-lts-headers.

All these packages can be installed with the command:

sudo pacman -S linux-lts linux-lts-headers nvidia-lts

Please note that it is not required to remove the old kernel and also the NVIDIA drivers (although you can do this if you wish).

How to switch to linux-lts kernel. Boot options update

In order to use the linux-lts kernel, you need to change the boot options.

Changing boot options is done differently depending on whether you are using GRUB or systemd-boot.

If you are unsure, see “How to check if a computer is using BIOS or UEFI; GRUB or systemd-boot bootloader; MBR or GPT partition table”.

Update boot options for systemd-boot

Open file /boot/loader/entries/arch.conf

sudo vim /boot/loader/entries/arch.conf

Or:

sudo gedit /boot/loader/entries/arch.conf

And replace the lines in it

linux   /vmlinuz-linux
initrd  /initramfs-linux.img

On the

linux   /vmlinuz-linux-lts
initrd  /initramfs-linux-lts.img

For example, the full content of my file was

title	BlackArch
linux   /vmlinuz-linux-lts
initrd  /initramfs-linux-lts.img
options	root=/dev/nvme0n1p2 rw

I commented out the lines that point to the normal kernel version and added the lines that point to linux-lts:

title	BlackArch
#linux	/vmlinuz-linux
#initrd	/initramfs-linux.img
linux   /vmlinuz-linux-lts
initrd  /initramfs-linux-lts.img
options	root=/dev/nvme0n1p2 rw

Then reboot and make sure you are using the LTS kernel version with the command:

uname -a

Update Boot Options for GRUB

Update your GRUB configuration:

sudo grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Then reboot and make sure you are using the LTS kernel version with the command:

uname -a

After the kernel has been improved and the problems that are bothering you are fixed, you can return to the latest version of the Linux kernel.

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