Month: January 2022

How to install Windows 11 without a Microsoft account

The Windows 11 and Windows 10 installer prompts you to create an online user account with Microsoft. Some functions of the operating system are tied to an online account, but many users prefer only an offline account. This guide will show you how to install Windows 11 without signing up for a Microsoft account.

How to install Windows 11 with a local account

The installation start is identical whether you want to use an online or offline account.

In the How would you like to set up this device step, select “Set up for personal use” and click the “Next” button.

In order not to create a Microsoft account, but to use an offline account, at the stage shown in the screenshot, scroll down and click “Sing-in options”.

Find and select “Offline account” option.

You will be persuaded, but click “Skip for now”.

Think of and enter a username.

Think up, remember and enter the password. If you want to log in to the computer without a password, then leave this field blank.

Do not rush to click “Next” at this stage.

Scroll through the list carefully – you may want to disable some/all options.

If you have disabled all options, then the “Next” button will change to “Accept”.

UEFI does not see installed Linux (SOLVED)

How to add a new boot option to UEFI

UEFI usually automatically detects operating system loaders on media connected to a computer. But sometimes UEFI does not show all available options. Let's see how to add a new option to the UEFI boot menu.

For example, I plugged a flash drive with two operating systems – Windows 11 and Kali Linux – into my computer USB port, pressed ESC during boot to select boot options. The screenshot shows two options:

  • Linux OS on internal drive
  • Windows OS on a flash drive

If I select the first option, then it will boot from the internal disk, if the second, then Windows will boot. There is no way to boot Kali Linux from a flash drive.

Go to UEFI settings.

To come to the advanced UEFI settings, on my laptop I use the F7 key.

Go to the “Boot” tab.

As you can see, two boot options are selected and I can add additional ones – both from the drop-down list and new ones that are not in the list.

Among the options available in the drop-down list, there is no Kali Linux from a flash drive.

I select “Add New Boot Option”.

In the “Path for boot option” field, I need to specify the path to the /EFI/kali/grubx64.efi file.

I select a USB flash drive (there is a line “USB” in the path).

Select the “EFI” folder.

Select the “kali” folder.

Select the “grubx64.efi” file.

In the “Add boot option” field, I enter a name for this boot option and click the “Create” button.

The new boot option has been successfully created.

I add this option to the boot menu.

I save the settings made and restart the computer.

The option to boot “Kali” from a flash drive is now available.

The Linux bootloader is aware of the existence of Windows 11 installed and adds the ability to boot it into its menu.

When you select the “Windows Boot Manager” item, Windows 11 is booted from a USB flash drive.

When choosing to boot Kali Linux, you are required to enter a password for the encrypted partition on which the /home folder is located.

Further, work from a USB flash drive in Kali Linux continues as usual.

What to do if there are no settings for adding boot options in UEFI (BIOS)

UEFI varies from manufacturer to manufacturer: some have a lot of settings, some don't. It is possible that UEFI does not see the Linux bootloader and does not have the option to add a new item to the boot menu.

In this case, you can use a different approach. The essence of the method is that any UEFI by default tries to load the bootloader with the /EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI path. This is the so-called fallback path to the bootloader. Therefore, it is enough to rename the existing path to fallback for UEFI to start loading it.

For example, the path to the Kali Linux bootloader is /EFI/kali/grubx64.efi. In this case, you need to rename the “kali” folder to “BOOT” and the “grubx64.efi” file to “BOOTX64.EFI”.

These files are located on a hidden partition with the FAT32 file system.

Renaming files and folders on an EFI partition in Linux

To make these changes on Linux, mount the drive with read/write permissions and rename the directory and file.

Let's see the names of disks and partitions:

sudo fdisk -l

The partition with the EFI System on which we want to make changes is called /dev/sdb1, let’s mount it:

mkdir /tmp/efi
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /tmp/efi

Now rename the folder and file sequentially.

sudo mv /tmp/efi/EFI/kali/ /tmp/efi/EFI/BOOT/
sudo mv /tmp/efi/EFI/BOOT/grubx64.efi /tmp/efi/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI

When finished, unmount the /dev/sdb1 partition:

sudo umount /dev/sdb1

Renaming files and folders on an EFI partition in Windows

Open the Windows Command Prompt with administrator rights. To do this, press Win+x and select “Windows Terminal (Admin)”.

In the command line, run the program and wait for it to open:

diskpart

At the DISKPART prompt, type:

list disk

We need to find out what number the boot disk has. In my case it is 0.

Now enter the following command, replacing 0 with the number of your boot disk:

sel disk 0

Now the following command will list the volumes:

list vol

This is a very important step! We need to find out what number the partition with EFI has. The EFI partition has a FAT32 file system and does not have a letter.

In my screenshot, the EFI volume is number 2.

Run the following command, replacing 2 with your partition number:

sel vol 2

Now this volume needs to be assigned a letter. It can be any unoccupied letter.

assign letter=V:

Exit DISKPART:

exit

Close Command Prompt.

To edit the names of folders and files on the disk, administrator rights are required. To do this, for example, I run Double Commander with administrator rights.

See also: Free analogue of Total Commander

After that, you can edit the EFI partition like regular folders and files.

Firmware files for drivers in Linux

What is Linux Firmware for?

Firmware can be confusing because not all users remember them, and firmware are not always pre-installed on Linux distributions. At the same time, firmware is just as important for the normal operation of devices as are drivers (kernel modules), which usually already exist in the system, since they are part of the Linux kernel.

Due to the lack of firmware, the device may not work completely or partially.

The name of the firmware packages differs in distributions (and sometimes it differs in an unobvious way, for example, by rearranging words). Firmware packages can contain both firmware for devices from different manufacturers, and for devices from the same manufacturer.

Sometimes firmware from one manufacturer is divided in different packages, for example, the firmware-intel-sound package contains firmware for Intel sound devices, and the firmware-iwlwifi package contains firmware for Intel wireless cards.

There are cases when the firmware of devices of the same type and the same manufacturer is divided into different packages, for example, the firmware-ath9k-htc and firmware-atheros packages contain firmware for Atheros wireless adapters.

Examples of problems that missing firmware can cause:

Firmware in Kali Linux

Kali Linux has several firmware packages, for example:

  • firmware-linux-free
  • firmware-linux-nonfree
  • firmware-misc-nonfree

The first two packages contain firmware that was previously included in the Linux kernel. The first package contains firmware that complies with the Debian Free Software Guidelines, the second contains the rest that do not comply with the Free Software Guidelines. Most of the firmware got into the non-free package. And the third package contains… more firmware.

In addition to these packages, there are packages containing firmware for certain devices from certain manufacturers, for example, firmware-realtek, firmware-atheros, firmware-iwlwifi.

The Kali Linux repository also has two metapackages:

  • firmware-linux – includes firmware-linux-free and firmware-linux-nonfree
  • kali-linux-firmware – includes bluez-firmware, firmware-amd-graphics, firmware-atheros, firmware-brcm80211, firmware-intel-sound, firmware-iwlwifi, firmware-libertas, firmware-linux, firmware-misc-nonfree, firmware-realtek, firmware-sof-signed, firmware-ti-connectivity, firmware-zd1211

In order not to experience problems with Wi-Fi and other devices in the future, it is recommended to install the kali-linux-firmware package, which will install most of the necessary firmware.

In Kali Linux, it is convenient to search for firmware packages with a command like

apt search SEARCH_STRING

As SEARCH_STRING, you can specify the name of the device, manufacturer, chipset of the device, the name of the firmware file, if you know it.

Firmware in Debian

In Debian, in addition to the firmware-linux-free, firmware-linux-nonfree, and firmware-misc-nonfree packages already familiar from Kali Linux, there is also the already familiar firmware-linux metapackage that combines the first two.

In addition to those discussed, there are firmware for devices from individual manufacturers, for example, firmware-iwlwifi, firmware-ath9k-htc, firmware-atheros, firmware-amd-graphics and others.

Firmware in Ubuntu, Linux Mint

In these distributions, the firmware is not divided into free and nonfree and is placed in one package called linux-firmware.

In addition to this package, there are also firmware for certain manufacturers, such as firmware-ath9k-htc, nouveau-firmware and others.

In general, in Ubuntu and Linux Mint, most of the firmware is collected in a single linux-firmware package, it is convenient!

But the search for firmware packages with a command like

apt search SEARCH_STRING

practically useless if you are trying to search by device model, chipset or firmware file. If you searched and did not find a separate package for your device, then most likely the firmware you need is contained in the linux-firmware package.

Firmware in Arch Linux, Manjaro, BlackArch

Until recently, all firmware were collected in one linux-firmware package. But some large and rare firmware have been divied into separate packages, details in the article “Changes in the linux-firmware package: kernel requirements, separating large files into separate packages”.

How to install all firmware for various drivers in the Linux kernel

In order to avoid possible problems due to missing firmware in the future, it is recommended to install them, since they take up relatively little disk space. Previously, many firmware were part of the kernel (which is understandable, given their importance), but were removed from the kernel, apparently to save space.

Installation of the main firmware packages is performed by the following commands.

On Kali Linux:

sudo apt install kali-linux-firmware

On Debian:

sudo apt install firmware-linux firmware-misc-nonfree firmware-iwlwifi firmware-ath9k-htc

On Ubuntu, Linux Mint:

sudo apt install linux-firmware firmware-iwlwifi firmware-ath9k-htc

On Arch Linux, Manjaro, BlackArch:

sudo pacman -S linux-firmware

Linux does not see Wi-Fi on Intel chipset. “firmware: failed to load iwlwifi” error (SOLVED)

Built-in Wi-Fi adapter manufactured by Intel is not detected by the system. Linux does not see the Wi-Fi device as if it is not connected.

To view system events since the last boot, run the following command.

journalctl -b

You can scroll through the output or search for “iwlwifi”.

An example output related to a non-working Wi-Fi adapter on an Intel chipset:

Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: Intel(R) Wireless WiFi driver for Linux
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: enabling device (0000 -> 0002)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-46.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: firmware_class: See https://wiki.debian.org/Firmware for information about missing firmware
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-46.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-45.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-45.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-44.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-44.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-43.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-43.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-42.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-42.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-41.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-41.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-40.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-40.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-39.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-39.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-38.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-38.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-37.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-37.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-36.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-36.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-35.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-35.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-34.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-34.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-33.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-33.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-32.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-32.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-31.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-31.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-30.ucode (-2)
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: Direct firmware load for iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-30.ucode failed with error -2
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: minimum version required: iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-30
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: maximum version supported: iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-46
Jan 27 11:57:00 HackWare-Kali kernel: iwlwifi 0000:00:14.3: check git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/firmware/linux-firmware.git

To search the system log, you can use the following command:

journalctl -b | grep iwlwifi

In the output, the key line is “firmware: failed to load iwlwifi-9000-*.ucode (-2)”, that is, it was not possible to load the iwlwifi firmware.

Searching the package repository

apt search iwlwifi

showed that in Kali Linux, the iwlwifi firmware is placed in the firmware-iwlwifi package, install it:

sudo apt install firmware-iwlwifi

On Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Debian, run the following command to install the firmware:

sudo apt install firmware-iwlwifi

On Arch Linux, Manjaro, BlackArch and their derivatives, run the command:

sudo pacman -S linux-firmware

After installing the firmware and restarting the computer, the problem will disappear and the Wi-Fi adapter will work.

Linux does not see Wi-Fi on Realtek chipset. “firmware: failed to load rt2870.bin” error (SOLVED)

When connecting a Wi-Fi adapter with a Realtek chipset, nothing happens, or the device does not work properly.

Command

iw dev

outputs the following information:

phy#0
        Interface wlan0
                ifindex 3
                wdev 0x1
                addr 52:e7:b0:49:a2:84
                type managed
                txpower 0.00 dBm

The txpower value is zero, the system does not see the Wi-Fi device.

Run command

journalctl -f

and connect the Wi-Fi adapter to your computer

Jan 27 06:09:24 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: reset high-speed USB device number 2 using ehci-pci
Jan 27 06:09:25 HackWare-Kali kernel: ieee80211 phy0: rt2x00_set_rt: Info - RT chipset 3572, rev 0223 detected
Jan 27 06:09:25 HackWare-Kali kernel: ieee80211 phy0: rt2x00_set_rf: Info - RF chipset 0009 detected
Jan 27 06:09:25 HackWare-Kali kernel: ieee80211 phy0: Selected rate control algorithm 'minstrel_ht'
Jan 27 06:09:25 HackWare-Kali NetworkManager[612]:   [1643281765.9900] device (wlan0): driver supports Access Point (AP) mode
Jan 27 06:09:25 HackWare-Kali systemd[1]: Starting Load/Save RF Kill Switch Status...
Jan 27 06:09:25 HackWare-Kali NetworkManager[612]:   [1643281765.9949] manager: (wlan0): new 802.11 Wi-Fi device (/org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/Devices/3)
Jan 27 06:09:25 HackWare-Kali kernel: usbcore: registered new interface driver rt2800usb
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali systemd-udevd[1328]: Using default interface naming scheme 'v250'.
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali NetworkManager[612]:   [1643281766.0124] rfkill0: found Wi-Fi radio killswitch (at /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0b.0/usb1/1-1/1-1:1.0/ieee80211/phy0/rfkill0) (driver rt2800usb)
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali systemd[1]: Started Load/Save RF Kill Switch Status.
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali NetworkManager[612]:   [1643281766.0298] device (wlan0): state change: unmanaged -> unavailable (reason 'managed', sys-iface-state: 'external')
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali kernel: ieee80211 phy0: rt2x00lib_request_firmware: Info - Loading firmware file 'rt2870.bin'
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali kernel: rt2800usb 1-1:1.0: firmware: failed to load rt2870.bin (-2)
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali kernel: firmware_class: See https://wiki.debian.org/Firmware for information about missing firmware
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali kernel: rt2800usb 1-1:1.0: Direct firmware load for rt2870.bin failed with error -2
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali kernel: ieee80211 phy0: rt2x00lib_request_firmware: Info - Loading firmware file 'rt2870.bin'
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali kernel: rt2800usb 1-1:1.0: firmware: failed to load rt2870.bin (-2)
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali kernel: rt2800usb 1-1:1.0: Direct firmware load for rt2870.bin failed with error -2
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali NetworkManager[612]:   [1643281766.0307] device (wlan0): firmware may be missing.
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali NetworkManager[612]:   [1643281766.0310] device (wlan0): set-hw-addr: set MAC address to 52:E7:B0:49:A2:84 (scanning)
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali dbus-daemon[611]: [system] Activating via systemd: service name='org.freedesktop.Avahi' unit='dbus-org.freedesktop.Avahi.service' requested by ':1.72' (uid=119 pid=1345 comm="/usr/libexec/colord-sane ")
Jan 27 06:09:26 HackWare-Kali dbus-daemon[611]: [system] Activation via systemd failed for unit 'dbus-org.freedesktop.Avahi.service': Unit dbus-org.freedesktop.Avahi.service not found.
Jan 27 06:09:28 HackWare-Kali ModemManager[639]:   [base-manager] couldn't check support for device '/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:0b.0/usb1/1-1': not supported by any plugin
Jan 27 06:09:31 HackWare-Kali systemd[1]: systemd-rfkill.service: Deactivated successfully.
Jan 27 06:09:33 HackWare-Kali systemd[1]: blueman-mechanism.service: Deactivated successfully.

In the output, the key line is “firmware: failed to load rt2870.bin”, that is, it was not possible to load the firmware rt2870.bin.

In Kali Linux, the rt2870.bin firmware is placed in the firmware-misc-nonfree package, install it:

sudo apt install firmware-misc-nonfree

On Ubuntu, Linux Mint and their derivatives, run the following command:

sudo apt install linux-firmware

On Debian, run:

sudo apt install firmware-misc-nonfree

On Arch Linux, Manjaro, BlackArch and their derivatives, run the command:

sudo pacman -S linux-firmware

After installing the firmware and restarting the computer, the problem will disappear and the Wi-Fi adapter will work.

Note that Debian and derivatives have a firmware-realtek package which also contains Realtek firmware. In addition to these two packages, various distributions contain Realtek drivers and firmware in separate packages – to determine exactly which package you need, search your distribution's package repository for the name of the Wi-Fi adapter, as well as the name of the driver and firmware file that may appear in the error message.

See also the section “Drivers and firmware”.

Linux does not see Alfa AWUS036NHA. “firmware: failed to load ath9k_htc” error (SOLVED)

When connecting a Wi-Fi adapter based on the Atheros chipset, such as Alfa AWUS036NHA, a Linux computer does not see the Wi-Fi device. Command

iw dev

does not output anything, as if the device is not connected.

In the Linux Wi-Fi Cheat Sheet: Tips and Troubleshooting, we'll use the advice from the “How to ask a question about a problem with a Wi-Fi adapter” section, namely, open several terminal windows and run the following commands in them:

iw event
ip monitor
journalctl -f

Then plug the Wi-Fi adapter to the computer.

journalctl gave the following messages:

Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: ath9k_htc: Firmware ath9k_htc/htc_9271-1.4.0.fw requested
Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: firmware: failed to load ath9k_htc/htc_9271-1.4.0.fw (-2)
Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: Direct firmware load for ath9k_htc/htc_9271-1.4.0.fw failed with error -2
Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: ath9k_htc: Firmware htc_9271.fw requested
Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: firmware: failed to load htc_9271.fw (-2)
Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: Direct firmware load for htc_9271.fw failed with error -2
Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: no suitable firmware found!
Jan 27 00:55:28 HackWare-Kali kernel: usb 1-1: ath9k_htc: USB layer deinitialized

The key to solving the problem in these messages is the information that the ath9k_htc firmware is not loaded. For devices to work, in addition to the driver (which can be part of the kernel or installed separately), firmware is required.

Let's search for the firmware:

apt search ath9k_htc

In Kali Linux, the ath9k_htc firmware is placed in a separate firmware-atheros package, install it:

sudo apt install firmware-atheros

On Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint, run the following command to install:

sudo apt firmware-ath9k-htc

On Arch Linux, Manjaro, BlackArch and their derivatives, run the command:

sudo pacman -S linux-firmware

After installing the firmware and restarting the computer, the problem will disappear and the Wi-Fi adapter will work.

How to add text formatting to WhatsApp and Viber: bold, italic, strikethrough and multiline text

How to Bold, Italic or Strikethrough Text in WhatsApp and Viber

WhatsApp and Viber applications can use markup to format text.

For example, if you want to make text bold, put an asterisk * at the beginning and end of it.

*example* will look like example

To make text italic, start and end it with an underscore _

_example_ would look like example

To make text strikethrough, start and end it with a tilde (“wave”) character ~

~example~ would look like example

You can highlight several words or a whole sentence at once.

*multi-word example* will look like multi-word example

You can combine formatting if you wish.

~*example*~ will look like example

~_example_~ will look like example

Please note that you can use styles in the WhatsApp web client, but the formatting will only be visible in the application on a phone or tablet.

In Viber, text formatting also works.

How to enter text in several lines in WhatsApp and Viber without sending

To jump to a new line without sending a message, use the symbol shown by the arrow.

On WhatsApp and Viber desktop clients, use the SHIFT+ENTER keyboard shortcut to move to a new line without sending a message.

WordPress error “Another update is currently in progress” (SOLVED)

When updating a WordPress site, for example, when migrating to a new version of WordPress, you may encounter an error:

Another update is currently in progress.

This problem is fairly easy to fix. It is especially pleasing that this error is not fatal, unlike, this error does not prevent users from browsing the site, and the webmaster can go to the WordPress admin area to solve the problem.

Why does the error “Another update is currently in progress” occurs?

You may see this message if the site has multiple administrators and you are trying to update WordPress at the same time. In this case, wait until another webmaster completes his job.

If you are the only administrator of the site, then the cause of this error may be a failed previous update, which was interrupted, for example, due to a broken connection.

How to fix “Another update is currently in progress” with a plugin

Due to the fact that it is possible to go to the WordPress admin panel, this error can be solved using a plugin.

The plugin is called “Fix Another Update In Progress” and can be installed through the WordPress Admin Panel.

To do this, in the admin panel, go to “Plugins” → “Add New”.

Search for “Fix Another Update In Progress”, install and activate this plugin.

Then go to “Settings” → “Fix Another Update In Progress” and click the “Fix WordPress Update Lock” button.

After that, the problem should be fixed.

How to fix “Another update is currently in progress” in phpMyAdmin

If you don't want to install the plugin, then this error can be fixed by deleting one value from the database of the WordPress site. For ease of editing the database, you can use phpMyAdmin.

Start by finding the database of the site you want to fix.

Open a table named “wp_options”.

Find the line named “core_updater.lock”. To speed up the search, you can use the search in database. Search by the “option_name” column.

Click the “Delete” button.

After that, the problem will be solved.

Error “The code execution cannot proceed because VCRUNTIME140.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem” (SOLVED)

When you try to run the program, you may encounter the following errors:

  • The code execution cannot proceed because VCRUNTIME140.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem
  • The code execution cannot proceed because VCRUNTIME140_1.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem
  • The code execution cannot proceed because MSVCP140.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem

That is, the program cannot run because the VCRUNTIME140.dll, VCRUNTIME140_1.dll, and MSVCP140.dll files are not found.

In this case, it is useless to follow the prompts of the system and reinstall the program.

Also, in no case should you look for the library files VCRUNTIME140.dll and MSVCP140.dll on dubious sites and try to add them to the system.

The reason for the error is that the program requires Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022. This is a completely free set of libraries that you can download from the official Microsoft website. This file is the runtime for programs compiled with Visual Studio. This redistributable package contains all required libraries, including VCRUNTIME140.dll and MSVCP140.dll.

You can download Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022 from the official website at the following link: https://aka.ms/vs/17/release/VC_redist.x64.exe (this is a 64-bit version) and https:// aka.ms/vs/17/release/VC_redist.x86.exe (this is the 32-bit version)

Run the downloaded file by double-clicking, accept the license terms and complete the installation.

Immediately after installation, the problem with the missing files VCRUNTIME140.dll and MSVCP140.dll should disappear and the program that requires them should work as expected, without errors.

VCRUNTIME140.dll still not found after installing Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022

If after installing Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022 you still get an error with the missing VCRUNTIME140.dll file, then this means that in addition to the already installed version, you need to install a version of a different processor architecture.

For example, you installed the 64-bit version of Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022, but you get a VCRUNTIME140.dll file missing error, which means that the application that needs the specified file is 32-bit and you need to install the 32-bit version of Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022. Links to both versions are given above.

How to clean up Windows 11 without additional programs

Do I need to clean and optimize Windows 11 after installation

Operating systems, be it Windows, Android or even Linux, can be used to promote products and services. Therefore, at present, one of the main questions after reinstalling the OS is not how to install new programs, but how to remove pre-installed ones. For unnecessary, useless software that is installed against the will of the user, they came up with the term bloatware.

These unnecessary applications are often added to startup and consume system resources (RAM and CPU resources), take up space on the screen and even in the quick launch bar, they are automatically updated, sometimes at the wrong time, for example, when using a limited Internet connection.

There are several tools for removing unnecessary software, cleaning and optimizing the system for Windows, but how useful and harmless are they?

To begin with, I would strongly advise against running executable files on your computer from any source other than those that you are absolutely sure of.

There are open source tools available, such as a Windows cleanup script written in PowerShell. In my opinion, all these tools, even open source ones, are of little use and may even be harmful.

In most cases, it is enough to make a few settings and remove a few tools from autorun to get rid of bloatware in Windows. As for the dozens and even hundreds of other actions that Windows cleaning tools perform, they are mostly either useless or can cause unforeseen consequences.

In this note, we will look at how to remove unnecessary apps from startup and how to remove useless programs and icons from the quick launch bar.

Cleaning Windows 11 after installation without additional programs

This is what the Taskbar and System Tray look like in a freshly installed Windows 11:

Other than the Start menu, I don't need any of these icons! Let's see how to customize the quick launch bar (Taskbar) for yourself.

Checking and cleaning startup

Press Win+x and select Task Manager.

Click on the “More details” button, go to the “Startup” tab, sort by “Status” and disable applications that you do not need in autorun.

To remove an application from startup, right-click on it and select “Disable”.

The changes you make will take effect on the next boot.

How to remove icons from the taskbar

To customize the Taskbar, right-click on it and click “Taskbar settings”.

In the window that opens, find “Taskbar items” and disable the ones you don't need.

For example like this:

After that, the taskbar began to look like this:

I don't need a Microsoft browser (I use Chrome and Firefox instead), I don't need Windows Explorer (I use Double Commander instead), and I don't need the Microsoft Store in Quick Access. To remove all these items, right-click on them and select “Unpin from taskbar”.

See also: Free analogue of Total Commander

All that's left is this:

To add applications that you frequently use to the Taskbar, open the application, right-click on the application's icon in the Taskbar, and select “Pin to taskbar”.

My selection of the most used programs:

Loading...
X