Tag: webmaster tools

How to reboot a server in DigitalOcean

DigitalOcean offers various cloud technologies for developers, but of all the variety of services, I use only VPS (virtual private server).

At the same time, due to the large number of cloud solutions, it is not intuitively clear how to perform such a simple action in DigitalOcean as rebooting the VPS.

The server can be restarted by connecting to it via SSH and executing the command

reboot

But if the server is frozen and SSH is not working, then you can force a reboot of the VPS from the DigitalOcean control panel.

How to restart a VPS in DigitalOcean

Go to the control panel and select Droplets from the menu, then select the server you want to restart.

Then select the “Power” tab.

On it you will see two possible actions:

  • Turn off Droplet – turn off the VPS
  • Power cycle – VPS reboot

That is, to restart the VPS, you need to press the “Power Cycle” button.

After that, wait until the reboot is completed.

What is the difference between Turn off Droplet and Power cycle

Turn off Droplet roughly corresponds to a power outage from your virtual private server. That is, the server stops working. At the same time, the server itself is saved, its IP and IPv6 addresses and other characteristics are saved.

You can turn your server back on at any time.

The “Turn off Droplet” feature is necessary if you want to make it unavailable, shut down your server for any reason.

Please note that turning off the server using the “Turn off Droplet” does not cancel the payment for it! You will still be charged for the plan for VPS in accordance with the selected server parameters!

If you want the server to no longer be charged, then you need to destroy it (that is, go to the “Destroy” section and perform the appropriate actions to delete the server). After deleting the server, it will be impossible to restore it!

The “Power cycle” is to turn off the power from the server, and then turn it on again, that is, this corresponds to a VPS reboot.

That is, you can restart the server by turning off the power in the Turn off Droplet, and then turning it back on manually, or by performing a Power cycle. However, these actions are not quite equivalent:

  • Turning off and on using the “Turn off Droplet” will mean an attempt to send a command to the server to turn off. If this fails, the power will be forcibly turned off. You can then restart the server manually. All of this takes longer overall, but is a bit safer.
  • Using “Power cycle” will turn the power off and back on without attempting to shut down the server safely. Power cycle takes less time (provided that your VPS is healthy and able to boot on its own).

DigitalOcean promo code

If you want to get a DigitalOcean promo code for testing VPS (or other cloud features) for free, then use this link.

You will be given $200, which you can use to create a VPS, among other things.

Sitemap.xml files: what they are for, how to use them, and how to bypass “Too many URLs” error and size limits

Table of contents

  1. What are Sitemaps
  2. What are the restrictions for sitemap files
  3. How can you compress a sitemap file
  4. Can I use multiple sitemaps?
  5. What is the structure of sitemap files
  6. How to generate sitemap files
  7. How to Import a Sitemap into Google Search Console
  8. Sitemap.xml file status “Couldn't fetch”
  9. Is it necessary to use the sitemap.xml file?
  10. What to do if the sitemap contains an error. How to remove a sitemap file from Google Search Console

What are Sitemaps

Sitemaps are XML-formatted files that contain a list of the URLs of your site's pages for submission to the Google search engine so that it can quickly find out and index them.

What are the restrictions for sitemap files

  1. The file size should not be more than 50 MB
  2. There can be no more than 50,000 links in one file

How can you compress a sitemap file

In addition to the simple text format with XML markup, the file can be compressed into a .gz archive. In this case, the file size decreases dramatically because text files compress very well. For example, my 25 MB file was compressed into a 500 KB file.

To do this, it is enough to compress the original sitemap.xml file into .gz format. As a link in Google Search Console, you need to specify the path to the archive, for example: https://site.net/sitemap.xml.gz

If, when you try to open the https://site.net/sitemap.xml.gz file in a web browser, it downloads it to your computer instead of showing the content as for the sitemap.xml file, then this is normal. Either way, Google Search Console will be able to process this file.

Can I use multiple sitemaps?

For each site or domain resource, you can create multiple Sitemaps and import them all into Google Search Console – this is not only allowed, but also recommended by Google itself for sitemaps that are too large.

If there are many Sitemap files, then a complete list of them can be collected in a separate Sitemap file. This file is called “Sitemap Index File”. An example of the content of the sitemap.xml file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<sitemapindex xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
	<sitemap>
		<loc>https://site.net/sitemaps/sitemap_1.xml</loc>
	</sitemap>
	<sitemap>
		<loc>https://site.net/sitemaps/sitemap_2.xml</loc>
	</sitemap>
	<sitemap>
		<loc>https://site.net/sitemaps/sitemap_3.xml</loc>
	</sitemap>
</sitemapindex>

After that, it is enough to import this main file into Google Search Console.

The rest of the sitemaps listed in the main index file will automatically be imported into the Google Search Console.

To see them, click on the file name. You will see a list of imported Sitemaps.

You need to wait before these files are processed and their status changes to “Success”.

What is the structure of sitemap files

Sitemap files have the following structure:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
	<url>
		<loc>https://domain.site.net/?p=1</loc>
		<lastmod>2022-10-08T14:14:27+00:00</lastmod>
		<changefreq>monthly</changefreq>
		<priority>0.8</priority>
	</url>
<url>
	<loc>https://domain.site.net/?p=2</loc>
		<lastmod>2022-10-08T14:14:27+00:00</lastmod>
		<changefreq>monthly</changefreq>
		<priority>0.8</priority>
	</url>
	<url>
		<loc>https://domain.site.net/?p=3</loc>
		<lastmod>2022-10-08T14:14:27+00:00</lastmod>
		<changefreq>monthly</changefreq>
		<priority>0.8</priority>
	</url>
</urlset>

Each entry consists of four elements:

  1. URL
  2. Date of last modification
  3. Frequency of modification (e.g. monthly)
  4. A priority

How to generate sitemap files

If you are using WordPress, then the easiest way is to install a sitemap plugin.

If there is no sitemap plugin for your site engine, then it is quite easy to generate it yourself, since it is just a text file with XML markup.

How to Import a Sitemap into Google Search Console

Go to Google Search Console, select the site you want to report the Sitemap for, enter the URL of the Sitemap.

Sitemap.xml file status “Couldn't fetch”

At first, an inscription may appear that the sitemap.xml file “Couldn't fetch”. This inscription appears even if everything is alright with the sitemap.xml file. You just need to wait a little.

The bottom line is that this inscription does not mean that there are problems with the sitemap.xml file. It's just that the turn to analyze this file has not yet come.

A little later, the status of the file will change to “Successful”. At the same time, it will show how many URLs were revealed thanks to this file.

Even later, you can view the link indexing report from the sitemap.xml file.

Is it necessary to use the sitemap.xml file?

In fact, I don't usually use a sitemap.xml file. I add articles to most sites manually and, in my opinion, the sitemap.xml file is not particularly needed, since pages on such sites are indexed very quickly.

But if you're unhappy with your site's indexing speed, or need to quickly report a large number of URLs to be indexed, then try using sitemap.xml files.

What to do if the sitemap contains an error. How to remove a sitemap file from Google Search Console

If, after trying to process the Sitemap, you find that it contains errors (for example, an incorrect date format or broken links), then you do not have to wait until the time comes for the next crawling.

You can delete a Sitemap from Google Search Console and add it again right away. After that, quite quickly (within a few minutes), Google will check the Sitemap file again.

To remove a Sitemap file from Google Search, click on it. On the page that opens, in the upper right corner, find the button with three horizontal dots. Click it and select “Remove sitemap”.

After that, the Sitemap file will be deleted and you, after correcting errors in it, can immediately re-add the Sitemap file with the same or a different URL.

All the ‘tips of the day’ LibreOffice

On this page, I have collected all the “Tips of the Day” that LibreOffice displays once a day when the program starts.

A few notes:

  • the lines are taken from the latest version of the program and will be updated as new versions of LibreOffice are released
  • in some tips the text or link is missing – I checked the source code files – there the text is the same
  • some numbers are missing – apparently, this is due to the fact that “Tips of the Day” is constantly updated. For example, in the previous version of the program there were more than 300, and in the last at the time of writing, a little more than 200

If you have your own interesting tips on using LibreOffice, then share them in the comments!

# Tips
Tip # 1 LibreOffice offers a variety of user interface options to make you feel at home
Tip # 2 Need to allow changes to parts of a read-only document in Writer? Insert frames or sections that can authorize changes. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/section_edit.html
Tip # 3 To print the notes of your slides go to File ▸ Print ▸ Impress tab and select Notes under Document ▸ Type.
Tip # 4 To start temporarily with a fresh user profile, or to restore a non-working LibreOffice, use Help ▸ Restart in Safe Mode. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/01/profile_safe_mode.html
Tip # 5 Writing a book? LibreOffice master document lets you manage large documents as a container for individual LibreOffice Writer files.
Tip # 6 You can create editable Hybrid PDFs with LibreOffice. https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Documentation/HowTo/CreateAHybridPDF
Tip # 7 Explore the ten different functions in the status bar (at the bottom of the document window). Place the cursor over each field for an explanation. If not visible, use View ▸ Status Bar.
Tip # 8 Want to sum a cell through several sheets? Refer to the range of sheets e.g. =SUM(Sheet1.A1:Sheet3.A1).
Tip # 9 You can create fillable form documents (even PDFs) with LibreOffice. https://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-to-create-interactive-pdfs-with-libreoffice
Tip # 10 Cannot see all the text in a cell? Expand the input line in the formula bar and you can scroll.
Tip # 11 Optimize your table layout with Table ▸ Size ▸ Distribute Rows / Columns Evenly.
Tip # 12 Find all expressions in brackets per Edit ▸ Find and Replace ▸ Find ▸ \([^)]+\) (check “Regular expressions”)
Tip # 13 Select a different icon set from Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ View ▸ User Interface ▸ Icon style.
Tip # 14 You can display a number as a fraction (0.125 = 1/8): Format ▸ Cells, Number ▸ Fraction.
Tip # 15 To remove a hyperlink but keep its text, right-click on the hyperlink, and use “Remove Hyperlink”.
Tip # 16 To remove several hyperlinks at once, select the text with the hyperlinks, then right-click and use “Remove Hyperlink”.
Tip # 17 To zoom a selection to fit the entire window in Draw, use the / (divide key) on the number pad.
Tip # 18 Click a column field (row) PivotTable and press F12 to group data. Choices adapt to content: Date (month, quarter, year), number (classes)
Tip # 19 You can restart the slide show after a pause specified at Slide Show ▸ Slide Show Settings ▸ Loop and repeat.
Tip # 20 To distribute some text in multi-columns select the text and apply Format ▸ Columns.
Tip # 21 Use View ▸ Value Highlighting to display cell contents in colors: Text/black, Formulas/green, Numbers/blue, Protected cells/grey background. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/03080000.html
Tip # 22 You can create different master pages in a presentation template: View ▸ Master Slide and Slide ▸ New Master (or per toolbar or right click in slide pane).
Tip # 23 Want to sort a pivot table? Click on drop-list’s arrow in the row/col header and select sort method: ascending, descending, or custom.
Tip # 24 Display photos or images with different shapes in Writer. Insert and select shape, then Insert ▸ Image. To adjust image, right-click on selected shape and choose Area.
Tip # 25 Use Page/Slide ▸ Properties ▸ “Fit object to paper format” in Draw/Impress to resize the objects so that they fit on your chosen paper format.
Tip # 26 Fit the entire page in a Draw window, use * on the number pad.
Tip # 27 In a Draw page, use “-” to zoom out; “+” to zoom in.
Tip # 28 Want to show the contents of another document within your document? Use Insert ▸ Section and select Link. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/section_insert.html#par_id3153404
Tip # 29 To automatically number table rows in Writer, select the relevant column, then apply a List Style. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/01/05130004.html
Tip # 30 LibreOffice allows you to use assistive tools, such as external screen readers, Braille devices or speech recognition input devices. https://www.libreoffice.org/get-help/accessibility/
Tip # 31 Want to sort a series in LibreOffice Calc such as A1, A2, A3, A11, A15, not in alphabetical order but on the number? Enable natural sort in the Options tab. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/12030200.html
Tip # 32 You can change the default function in the status bar: right click on the area.
Tip # 33 Want to add many of the same shapes in Draw/Impress? Double-click a tool in the drawing toolbar to use it for repeated tasks.
Tip # 34 CTRL+Shift+F9 recalculates all formulas in all spreadsheets.
Tip # 35 Want to keep a part of an editable document as read-only? Insert ▸ Section. Add text to the section, then right-click “Edit Section” and check “Protect”.
Tip # 36 Use the Backspace key instead of Delete in Calc. You can choose what to delete.
Tip # 37 Best way to fix bad-looking MS Word table cells via Table ▸ Size ▸ Optimal Row Height / Column Width.
Tip # 38 To repeat a table heading when a table spans over a page, use Table ▸ Table Properties ▸ Text Flow ▸ Repeat heading.
Tip # 39 To quickly insert or delete rows, select the desired number of rows (or columns) and press CTRL+ to add or CTRL- to delete.
Tip # 40 To repeat rows/columns on every pages use Format ▸ Print Ranges ▸ Edit.
Tip # 41 Insert images and photos into shapes in Draw and Impress. Right-click on a shape, choose Area ▸ Image ▸ Add/Import, and use Options to adjust appearance.
Tip # 42 Need to insert the date in a spreadsheet cell? Type CTRL+; or Shift+CTRL+; to insert the time.
Tip # 43 Insert your metadata in your document with Insert ▸ Fields ▸ More Fields… ▸ Document or DocInformation.
Tip # 44 Get help from the community via the Ask portal. https://ask.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 45 Use Shift+Space to select the current row and CTRL+Space to select the current column.
Tip # 46 You can move an object to another layer by holding it until its edges flash, then drag it to the tab of the layer you want to move it to.
Tip # 47 Data ▸ Validity allows you to create drop-down lists where the user selects a value instead of typing. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/guide/validity.html
Tip # 48 Hold down CTRL and turn the mouse wheel to change the zoom factor.
Tip # 49 LibreOffice has great extensions to increase your productivity—check them out. https://extensions.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 50 Want to count words for just one particular paragraph style? Use Edit ▸ Find and Replace, click Paragraph Styles, select the style in Find, and click Find All. Read the result in the status bar.
Tip # 51 Generate fully customized PDF documents with the exact format, image compression, comments, access rights, password, etc., via File ▸ Export as PDF.
Tip # 52 Writer includes LibreLogo: simple Logo-like programming environment with turtle vector graphics, DTP and graphic design. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/librelogo/LibreLogo.html
Tip # 53 Construct your own 2D shapes in Draw. Select two or more objects, and explore possibilities with Shape ▸ Combine, Shape ▸ Merge, Shape ▸ Subtract, and Shape ▸ Intersect. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/sdraw/guide/combine_etc.html
Tip # 54 Do you plan to change your computer and want to recover your customizations? See: https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/UserProfile
Tip # 55 You can toggle between the field names and the actual value with View ▸ Fields Names (or CTRL+F9).
Tip # 56 Show or hide comments in Writer by clicking the comment toggle button in the ruler.
Tip # 57 To enable macro recording, check Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ Advanced ▸ Enable macro recording.
Tip # 58 Want to insert a placeholder for an image in a Writer template? Use Insert ▸ Fields ▸ More fields, click Functions tab, choose PlaceHolder for Type and Image for Format.
Tip # 59 LibreOffice supports four macro security levels (from low to very high) and trusted sources. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/01030300.html
Tip # 60 Did you know that you can attach comments to portions of text? Just use the shortcut CTRL+ALT+C.
Tip # 61 Need to move one or more paragraphs? No need to cut and paste: Use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+ALT+Arrow (Up/Down)
Tip # 62 Change the basic fonts for the predefined template or current document per Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ Basic Fonts. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/01040300.html
Tip # 63 Want to find words containing more than 10 characters? Edit ▸ Find and Replace ▸ Search ▸ [a-z]{10,} ▸ Other Options ▸ check Regular expressions.
Tip # 64 Open a CSV file as a new sheet in the current spreadsheet via Sheet ▸ Sheet from file.
Tip # 65 Typing in bold, italics, or underlined in Writer you can continue with the default attributes using just the shortcut CTRL+Shift+X (remove direct character formats).
Tip # 66 Use CTRL+ALT+Shift+V to paste the contents of the clipboard as unformatted text.
Tip # 67 Customize footnote appearance with Tools ▸ Footnotes and Endnotes…
Tip # 68 With Slide Show ▸ Custom Slide Show, reorder and pick slides to fit a slideshow to the needs of your viewers.
Tip # 69 Want to change spell checking for some part of the text? Click in the language zone of the status bar or better, apply a style.
Tip # 70 Writer can insert a blank page between two odd (even) pages that follow. Check “Print automatically inserted blank pages” in the print dialog’s LibreOffice Writer tab.
Tip # 71 You do not want to print all columns? Hide or group the ones you do not need.
Tip # 72 To modify an AutoPlay presentation, open it and after it starts, right click and select Edit in the context menu.
Tip # 73 Need to precisely position? ALT+arrow Keys move objects (shapes, pictures, formulas) by one pixel.
Tip # 74 Embedded help is available by pressing F1, if you have installed it. Otherwise check online at: https://help.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 75 Right-click in the status bar in LibreOffice Calc and select “Selection count” to display the number of selected cells.
Tip # 76 Want to have two or more columns for just a part of a LibreOffice Writer page? Insert ▸ Section, set with Columns tab, and place text in that section.
Tip # 77 Use Data ▸ Statistics for sampling, descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, correlation, and much more in LibreOffice Calc.
Tip # 78 You can copy from one sheet to another without the clipboard. Select the area to copy, CTRL+click the target sheet’s tab and use Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Fill Sheets.
Tip # 79 You can change the look of LibreOffice via Tools ▸ Options ▸ View ▸ User Interface.
Tip # 80 In LibreOffice Impress, use Insert ▸ Media ▸ Photo Album to create a slideshow from a series of pictures with the “Photo Album” feature.
Tip # 81 You can show formulas instead of results with View ▸ Show Formula (or Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Calc ▸ View ▸ Display ▸ Formulas).
Tip # 82 LibreOffice is developed by a friendly community, made up of hundreds of contributors around the world. Join us with your skills beyond coding. https://www.libreoffice.org/community/get-involved/
Tip # 83 Left-handed? Enable Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Languages ▸ Asian and check Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ View ▸ Ruler ▸ Right-aligned, which displays the scrollbar to the left.
Tip # 84 Want your chapter titles to always begin a page? Edit Heading1 (paragraph style) ▸ Text Flow ▸ Breaks and check Insert ▸ Page ▸ Before.
Tip # 85 Date/time value is just a number of days since a chosen day zero; in the number, integer part represents date, and fractional part is time (elapsed part of a day), with 0.5 representing noon.
Tip # 86 Shift+CTRL+Del deletes from cursor to the end of the current sentence.
Tip # 87 Use column or row labels in formulas. For example, if you have two columns, “Time” and “KM”, use =Time/KM to get minutes per kilometer.
Tip # 88 Annoyed by the “marching ants” around cells in Calc? Press escape to stop them; the copied content will remain available for pasting.
Tip # 89 Want to become a LibreOffice Ambassador? There are certifications for developers, admins, and trainers. https://www.documentfoundation.org/certification/program/
Tip # 90 Mix portrait and landscape orientations in a Calc spreadsheet by applying different page styles on sheets.
Tip # 91 Click on the special character icon in the toolbar to get quick access to favorite and recent characters to insert.
Tip # 92 Choose “Hierarchical View” in the Styles sidebar to see the relation between styles.
Tip # 93 You can use styles to make the tables in your document consistent. Choose one from the predefined per Styles (F11) or via Table ▸ AutoFormat.
Tip # 94 Configure use of the CTRL key to open hyperlinks? Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ Security ▸ Options ▸ “CTRL+click required to open hyperlinks”.
Tip # 95 You would like to view the calculation of individual elements of a formula, select the respective elements and press F9.
Tip # 96 You can protect cells with Format ▸ Cells ▸ Protection. To prevent insert, delete, rename, move/copy of sheets use Tools ▸ Protect Sheet. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/guide/cell_protect.html
Tip # 97 Write along a curve? Draw the line, double click, type the text, Format ▸ Text Box and Shape ▸ Fontwork.
Tip # 98 Want to display only the highest values in a spreadsheet? Select menu Data ▸ AutoFilter, click the drop-down arrow, and choose “Top10”.
Tip # 99 To remove the page number from your table of contents go to Insert ▸ Table of Contents (or right-click and Edit the previously inserted index). In the Entries tab delete the page number (#) from Structure line.
Tip # 100 With the Navigator you can select & move up/down headings and the text below the heading, in the Navigator and in the document.
Tip # 101 To quickly get a math object in Writer type your formula, mark it, and use Insert ▸ Object ▸ Formula to convert the text.
Tip # 102 With LibreOffice it is very easy to install a new dictionary: they are supplied as extensions. https://extensions.libreoffice.org/?q=&Tags[]=50
Tip # 103 LibreOffice has a portable version which gives you mobility. Even without administrator rights on your computer you can install LibreOffice Portable to your hard drive too. https://www.libreoffice.org/download/portable-versions/
Tip # 104 Writer lets you number your footnotes per page, chapter, document: Tools ▸ Footnotes and Endnotes ▸ Footnotes tab ▸ Counting.
Tip # 105 Your Writer document does not reopen with the text cursor at the same editing position it was when you saved it? Add First or Last name in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ User Data ▸ First/last name.
Tip # 106 Citation management? Use a 3rd party extension. https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Referencing_Systems_in_LibreOffice
Tip # 107 Want to insert a value in the same place on several sheets? Select the sheets: hold down CTRL key and click their tabs before entering.
Tip # 108 Want to hide some text in a document? Select the text. Insert ▸ Section, and select “Hide”. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/hidden_text.html#hd_id3148675
Tip # 109 You can customize the middle mouse button per Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ View ▸ Middle Mouse button.
Tip # 110 Want to print two portrait pages on a landscape one (reducing A4 to A5)? File ▸ Print and select 2 at “Pages per sheet”.
Tip # 111 For quick access to your document bookmarks, right-click on the page number of the status bar (lower-left corner of document window).
Tip # 112 Select an object in the document background via the Select tool in the Drawing toolbar to surround the object to select.
Tip # 113 Define texts that you often use as AutoText. You will be able to insert them by their name, shortcut or toolbar in any Writer document. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/autotext.html
Tip # 114 Play music throughout a slideshow by assigning the sound to the first slide transition without clicking the “Apply to All Slides” button.
Tip # 115 LibreOffice Calc does not calculate from left to right but respects the order Parentheses – Exponents – Multiplication – Division – Addition – Subtraction.
Tip # 116 Get LibreOffice documentation and free user guide books at: https://documentation.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 117 Want to remove all <> at once and keep the text inside? Edit ▸ Find and Replace: Search = [<>], Replace = blank and check “Regular expressions” under Other options. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/01/02100001.html
Tip # 118 Need to present a report written with Writer? File ▸ Send ▸ Outline to Presentation automatically creates a slideshow from the outline.
Tip # 119 Want to manage the presentation of hyperlinks in a spreadsheet? Insert them with the HYPERLINK function. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060109.html
Tip # 120 Uncheck Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Calc ▸ View ▸ Zoom: “Synchronize sheets” so that each sheet in Calc has its own zoom factor.
Tip # 121 You can set a color for each tab: right-click the tab or use Sheet ▸ Sheet Tab Color.
Tip # 122 Trace cells used in a formula, precedents (Shift+F9) or dependents (Shift+F5) (or use Tools ▸ Detective). For each hit you go one more step in the chain. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/06030000.html
Tip # 123 Insert and number your formulas in one step: type fn then F3. An AutoText is inserted with formula and number aligned in a table.
Tip # 124 You can create an illustration index from object names, not only from captions. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/01/05190000.html
Tip # 125 Use your Android or iPhone to remotely control your Impress presentation. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/simpress/guide/impress_remote.html
Tip # 126 Want to know how many days there are in the current month? Use the DAYSINMONTH(TODAY()) function.
Tip # 127 Your numbers are displayed as ### in your spreadsheet? The column is too narrow to display all digits.
Tip # 128 Enable massive parallel calculations of formula cells via Tools ▸ Options ▸ OpenCL. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/opencl.html
Tip # 129 Use the Connector tool from the Drawing toolbar in Draw/Impress to create nice flow charts and optionally copy/paste the object into Writer.
Tip # 130 Your donations support our worldwide community. https://www.libreoffice.org/donate/
Tip # 131 You want to add x months to a date? Use =EDATE(date;months)https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/func_edate.html
Tip # 132 To select a contiguous range of cells containing data and bounded by empty row and columns use CTRL+* (numeric key pad).
Tip # 133 Your date acceptance pattern is inappropriate? Use Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Language ▸ Date acceptance patterns to tweak the pattern.
Tip # 134 Want to export formulas to CSV? File ▸ Save As ▸ Type:Text CSV, check “Edit filter settings”, and check “Save cell formulas” in the next dialog.
Tip # 135 The presenter console is a great feature when working with LibreOffice Impress. Have you checked it out? https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/simpress/guide/presenter_console.html
Tip # 136 To delete multiple comments, select cells with comments and use Sheet ▸ Cell Comments ▸ Delete Comment.
Tip # 137 Easily convert your documents to PDF with one click by clicking on the PDF icon in the toolbar.
Tip # 138 Want to select a large range of cells without scrolling? Type the range reference (e.g. A1:A1000) in the name box then Enter.
Tip # 139 Want to know the valid command line parameters? Start soffice with --help or -h or -? https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/guide/start_parameters.html
Tip # 140 Fit your sheet or print ranges to a page with Format ▸ Page ▸ Sheet Tab ▸ Scaling Mode.
Tip # 141 Need to include a list item without a bullet or number? Use “Insert Unnumbered Entry” in the Bullets and Numbering toolbar.
Tip # 142 You can rotate cells table orientation with Table ▸ Properties… ▸ Text Flow ▸ Text orientation.
Tip # 143 In LibreOffice Draw to change the 0/0 point of the rulers, drag the intersection of the two rulers in the top left corner into the workspace.
Tip # 144 Move a column in Calc between two others in one step? Click the header then a cell in the column, keep mouse button and move to the target with ALT key.
Tip # 145 Automatically mark alphabetical index entries using a concordance file. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/indices_index.html
Tip # 146 Use Format ▸ Align (or the context menu) for precise positioning of objects in Draw/Impress: it centers on the page if one object is selected or works on the group respectively.
Tip # 147 Do not use tabs to space items on a Writer document. Depending on what you are trying to do, a borderless table can be a better choice.
Tip # 148 No need to scroll through the list at Tools ▸ Customize ▸ Keyboard to find a shortcut: just type it.
Tip # 149 LibreOffice can automatically add a numbered caption when you insert objects. See Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ AutoCaption. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/01041100.html
Tip # 150 With LibreOffice you can use your Google Mail account to do a mail merge. Fill in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ Mail Merge Email. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/form_letters_main.html
Tip # 151 Keep column headers of a sheet visible when scrolling lines via View ▸ Freeze Cells ▸ Freeze First Row.
Tip # 152 You want to start working with Basic macros? Take a look at the examples under Tools ▸ Macros ▸ Edit Macros.
Tip # 153 Apply Heading paragraph styles in Writer with shortcut keys: CTRL+1 applies Heading 1, CTRL+2 applies Heading 2, etc.
Tip # 154 Do not get lost in large documents. Use the Navigator (F5) to find your way through the content.
Tip # 155 Edit ▸ Find and Replace lets you insert special characters directly: right click in input fields or press Shift+CTRL+S.
Tip # 156 Need custom contents for metadata properties? File ▸ Properties ▸ Custom Properties tab lets you create what you want.
Tip # 157 Want to see, but not print, an object in Draw? Draw it on a layer for which the “Printable” flag is not set (right click on the tab and “Modify Layer”).
Tip # 158 To insert the current date in your document, use Insert ▸ Field ▸ Date.
Tip # 159 Got many images in your Writer document? Speed up the display by disabling View ▸ Images and charts.
Tip # 160 Use Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Random Number to generate a random series based on various distributions. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/ru/text/scalc/01/02140700.html
Tip # 161 Rename your slides in Impress to help you define “Go to page” interactions and to have a summary more explicit than Slide1, Slide2…
Tip # 162 Chapter numbering dialog lets you set text to be displayed before the chapter number. For example, type “Chapter ” to display “Chapter 1”
Tip # 163 Transpose a Writer table? Copy and paste in Calc, transpose with copy/paste special then copy/paste special ▸ Formatted text in Writer.
Tip # 164 To get the “Vertical Text” tool in the Drawing toolbar, check Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Languages ▸ Default languages ▸ Asian (and make the button visible with right-click).
Tip # 165 To quickly zoom in on range selection, right click on the zoom part of the status bar and choose Optimal.
Tip # 166 You can sign existing PDF files and also verify those signatures. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/guide/digital_signatures.html
Tip # 167 Often create one document from another? Consider using a template.
Tip # 168 Use Format ▸ Conditional Formatting ▸ Manage in Calc to find out which cells have been defined with conditional formatting. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/05120000.html
Tip # 169 Tools ▸ Detective ▸ Mark Invalid Data highlights all cells in the sheet that contain values outside the validation rules. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/06030800.html
Tip # 170 Use font embedding for greater interoperability with other office suites at File ▸ Properties ▸ Font.
Tip # 171 To convert a formula into static values you do not need to copy/paste; use Data ▸ Calculate ▸ Formula to Value.
Tip # 172 You can reformat all comments in a document by clicking the down arrow in a comment and choose “Format all Comments”.
Tip # 173 Want the same layout for the screen display and printing? Check Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Calc ▸ General ▸ Use printer metrics for text formatting.
Tip # 174 Writer helps you to make backups: with File ▸ Save a Copy you create a new document continuing to work on the original.
Tip # 175 When you have created a Style based on another, you can enter a percentage value or a point value (e.g. 110% or −2pt or +5pt).
Tip # 176 To copy a comment without losing the content of the target cell you should use Paste Special and uncheck everything except “Comments” in dialog. Use Operations “Add” to not override existing content.
Tip # 177 Batch convert your MS Office documents to OpenDocument format by the Document Converter wizard in menu File ▸ Wizards ▸ Document converter.
Tip # 178 When editing a cell in place, you can right click and Insert fields: Date, Sheet name, Document title, etc.
Tip # 179 Need to move a Writer table? Table ▸ Select ▸ Table and Insert ▸ Frame ▸ Frame and move where you want.
Tip # 180 With Tools ▸ AutoText ▸ AutoText ▸ Import you can select a Word document or a template containing the AutoText entries that you want to import.
Tip # 181 Do not insert manual breaks to separate two paragraphs. Rather change Indents & Spacing ▸ Spacing ▸ Below paragraph at the style/paragraph properties.
Tip # 182 Keep the zeros before a number by using the “leading zeroes” cell format option or format the cell as text before entering the number.
Tip # 183 Want to return to default after applying a list style? Click Bullets or Numbering On/Off tool on the Formatting toolbar.
Tip # 184 Delete all of your printing areas in one step: select all sheets, then Format ▸ Print Ranges ▸ Clear.
Tip # 185 Add background images to spreadsheets via Insert ▸ Image or drag a background from the Gallery, then Format ▸ Arrange ▸ To Background.
Tip # 186 Having trouble pasting text from PDF files or webpages into documents? Try to paste as unformatted text (CTRL+ALT+Shift+V).
Tip # 187 In Calc use TRIMMEAN() to return the mean of a data set excluding the highest and lowest values. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060182.html?DbPAR=CALC#bm_id3152966
Tip # 188 The 4th optional parameter of VLOOKUP Calc function indicates whether the first column of data is sorted. If not, enter FALSE or zero.
Tip # 189 Toolbars are contextual—they open depending on the context. If you do not want that, uncheck them from View ▸ Toolbars.
Tip # 190 You can create a master document from the current Writer document by using File ▸ Send ▸ Create Master Document.
Tip # 191 Want to center cells on a printed page in Calc? Format ▸ Page, Page ▸ Layout settings ▸ Table alignment.
Tip # 192 Frames can be linked so that the text can flow from one to the other as in desktop publishing. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/text_frame.html
Tip # 193 You can create a chart based on a Writer table by clicking in the table and choosing Insert ▸ Chart.
Tip # 194 Select options in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ Formatting Aids ▸ Display to specify which non-printing characters are displayed.
Tip # 195 Want to jump to a particular page by its number? Click the left-most statusbar entry or use Edit ▸ Go To Page… or press CTRL+G.
Tip # 196 LibreOffice supports over 150 languages. https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Language_support_of_LibreOffice
Tip # 197 Uncheck Slide Show ▸ Settings ▸ Presentation always on top if you need another program displays its window to the front of your presentation.
Tip # 198 Want to find the words in bold in a Writer document? Edit ▸ Find and Replace ▸ Other options ▸ Attributes ▸ Font weight. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/finding.html
Tip # 199 You can sort paragraphs or table rows alphabetically or numerically per Tools ▸ Sort. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/01/06100000.html
Tip # 200 To insert a paragraph before (after) a section, press ALT+Enter at the beginning (end) of the section.
Tip # 201 LibreOffice has a template center to create good looking documents—check it out. https://extensions.libreoffice.org/?q=&Tags[]=118
Tip # 202 Calculate loan repayments with Calc: eg. PMT(2%/12;36;2500) interest rate per payment period 2%/12, 36 months, loan amount 2500. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060119.html?DbPAR=CALC#bm_id3149577
Tip # 203 Cannot find what you want with the VLOOKUP function in Calc? With INDEX and MATCH you can do anything! https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060109.html
Tip # 204 Want to show hidden column A? Click a cell in column B, press the left mouse button, move the mouse to the left, release. Then switch it on via Format ▸ Columns ▸ Show.
Tip # 205 To change the number of a page in Writer, go to the properties of the first paragraph and at the Text Flow tab check Break ▸ Insert and enter the number.
Tip # 206 Run LibreOffice in any browser via rollApp. https://www.rollapp.com/app/lowriter
Tip # 207 Strange error code in Calc, Err: followed by a number? This page gives the explanation: https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/05/02140000.html
Tip # 208 Include a paragraph that is not a title in the table of contents by changing Outline & Numbering in the paragraph settings to an outline level.
Tip # 209 Apart from table of contents, LibreOffice can create Alphabetical, Illustrations, Tables, Objects, Bibliography, User-Defined indexes. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/indices_toc.html
Tip # 210 Unable to modify or delete a custom cell style? Check all sheets, none should be protected.
Tip # 211 You need to fill a series? Select the cell range and Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Fill Series and choose between Linear, Growth, Date and AutoFill. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/guide/calc_series.html
Tip # 212 Want to know if a cell is referred in formulas of other cells? Tools ▸ Detective ▸ Trace Dependents (Shift+F5).
Tip # 213 In the replace input field of auto correct options you can use the wildcards .*
Tip # 214 Want to duplicate the above line? Press CTRL+D or use Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Fill Down.
Tip # 215 To search in several spreadsheets, select them before you start the search.
Tip # 216 Drag & drop cells from Calc into the normal view of a slide creates a table; into the outline view, each cell creates a line in the outline.
Tip # 217 LibreOffice helps you not to enter two or more spaces in Writer. Check Tools ▸ AutoCorrect ▸ AutoCorrect Options ▸ Options ▸ Ignore double spaces.
Tip # 218 Want the cursor to go into the cell to the right, after entering a value in Calc? Use the Tab key instead of Enter.
Tip # 219 To display the scrollbar to the left, enable Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Languages ▸ Complex text and check Sheet ▸ Right-To-Left.
Tip # 220 Drag a formatted object to the Styles and Formatting window. A dialog box opens, just enter the name of the new style.
Tip # 221 New versions of LibreOffice provide new features, bug fixes, and security patches. Keep your software updated!
Tip # 222 Developing new XSLT and XML filters? https://fridrich.blogspot.com/2013/08/extending-swiss-army-knife-overview.html
Tip # 223 Press Shift+F1 to see any available extended tooltips in dialog boxes, when "Extended tips" is not enabled in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ General. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/05/00000120.html

 

Configuring Apache Web Server to Run Perl Programs on Windows

Perl scripts can be run in the Apache environment in the same way as PHP scripts. To do this, you need to make a small setting.

I installed the web server according to this instruction, if you installed according to a different instruction, then edit the paths to suit your values.

1. Installing Perl on Windows

Download Perl for Windows from https://www.activestate.com/products/activeperl/downloads/

Run the downloaded .exe file – installation can be done with default options.

2. Configuring Apache to run Perl CGI

Now open the httpd.conf file for editing, I have it located along the path C:\Server\bin\Apache24\conf\httpd.conf.

Find the line there

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks

and add ExecCGI to it. You should get the following line (ATTENTION: you may have a different set of options):

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks ExecCGI

Now find the line:

#AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

Uncomment it, that is, remove the # at the beginning of the line and add .pl to the end of the line. The new line will look something like this:

AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl

3. Restart Apache

c:\Server\bin\Apache24\bin\httpd.exe -k restart

4. Run the Perl CGI test page

In the folder for your sites (mine is C:\Server\data\htdocs\) create a file test.pl and copy into it:

#!C:\Perl64\bin\perl.exe
print "Content-type: text/html; charset=iso-8859-1\n\n";
print "<phtml>";
print "<body>";
print "Test Page";
print "</body>";
print "</html>";

Pay attention to the line #!C:\Perl64\bin\perl.exe – if you have a different path to the perl.exe file, then edit the line accordingly.

Open this page in a web browser: http://localhost/test.pl

The inscription should appear

Test Page

As shown in the screenshot below:

How to find out all DNS records of sites behind CloudFlare

How to list all DNS records for a domain

Using the dig command, you can display all types of DNS records for the specified domain at once, but it does not work in all cases:

dig zalinux.ru ANY

To query all types of DNS records, but limiting the number of displayed sections only by the response section, add the “+noall +answer” options:

dig zalinux.ru ANY +noall +answer

How to list all DNS records for a domain behind CloudFlare

It works fine in most cases. But for some sites in the DNS server settings it is forbidden to display a full list of records, examples of such sites are all sites behind CloudFlare.

As a result, for example, for the site hhzunt.top (hidden behind CloudFlare), the usual method fails to get the contents of DNS records:

dig hhzunt.top ANY

You can see the answer section, apparently it is a reference to some documentation:

hhzunt.top.		3787	IN	HINFO	"RFC8482" ""

Considering that requests for single records cannot be prohibited, and also taking into account that the number of DNS records is finite, you can enumerate them all one by one:

dig hhzunt.top A +short
dig hhzunt.top AAAA +short
dig hhzunt.top SOA +short
dig hhzunt.top MX +short

etc.

You can also use the online service on the w-e-b.site or SuIP.biz website, where a new method has been added to obtain all DNS records for a specific site. The essence of the method is a full enumeration; queries are made to the DNS server for each type of record. As a result, it is now possible to get a complete list of DNS records even for sites behind CloudFlare.

Service address: https://w-e-b.site/?act=alldns

Its mirror: https://suip.biz/?act=alldns

Enter the site address, select “Enumeration” as the method.

An example of getting all DNS records for a site behind CloudFlare:

DNS records SVCB and HTTPS are displayed for all sites – regardless of whether the system administrator set them or not. Their value repeats the contents of the A record.

What is open_basedir for and how to use open_basedir

The open_basedir directive is specified in the PHP configuration file (php.ini) and sets the directories that PHP can access. Access refers to any actions with files: opening (for example, fopen() or gzopen()), writing and executing. If the open_basedir directive is set and an attempt is made to run a file that is outside the listed directories, the script will not run and will generate an error:

[Wed Apr 1 13:11:34 2020] PHP Warning: Unknown: open_basedir restriction in effect. File(/usr/share/seeker/template/nearyou/php/info.php) is not within the allowed path(s): (/srv/http/:/etc/webapps/:/usr/share/webapps/:/tmp/:/home/mial/) in Unknown on line 0

An example of the value of open_basedir:

open_basedir = /srv/http/:/etc/webapps/:/usr/share/webapps/:/tmp/:/home/mial/

In this example, PHP scripts are allowed to run, as well as operations with files in directories:

  • /srv/http/
  • /etc/webapps/
  • /usr/share/webapps/
  • /tmp/
  • /home/mial/

The open_basedir directive affects many functions. It makes most sense when used at the level of web server configuration files at the level of directories or virtual hosts.

By default, if the open_basedir value is not set, file operations are allowed in any directories on the computer (for which there are sufficient file permissions).

The open_basedir option can be extended to more than just functions for working with the filesystem; for example, if MySQL is configured to use the mysqlnd driver, then LOAD DATA INFILE is controlled by the open_basedir option. Many PHP functions also use open_basedir.

Special meaning . (dot) indicates that the script's working directory will be used as the base directory. However, this is a little dangerous, as the current directory of the script can be easily changed with chdir().

In httpd.conf, open_basedir can be turned off (for example, for some virtual hosts) in the same way as any other configuration directive:

php_admin_value open_basedir none

On Windows, separate directories with ; (semicolon). On all other systems, separate directories with : (colon). When running as an Apache module, open_basedir paths are automatically inherited from parent directories.

What is suip.biz website? Analogs and mirrors suip.biz

Site suIP.biz

SuIP.biz (short for “super IP”) started out as a service with several pages for various actions with IP addresses:

  • compilation of IP ranges of countries, cities, Internet providers
  • getting information about IP and IPv6 address (location, ISP, whois)
  • showing the user his IP

Subsequently, the site acquired calculators and converters for IP and IPv6 addresses:

Even when suIP.biz was created, services were added to scan IP addresses to find open ports.

Services for collecting information were gradually added:

In addition to the listed services, the site has the following sections:

  • Vulnerability scanners, open ports and running web server services
  • Subdomains and hidden files
  • Obtaining information on MAC addresses
  • Analysis of the web server
  • Working with hashes
  • Analysis of emails
  • Analysis of executable files
  • Extract information from cache and web archives
  • Bypassing the restriction on displaying source HTML code, bypassing social lockers
  • Advanced use of search engines
  • Working with encodings
  • CloudFlare Counter Tools
  • Images and metadata
  • Information about phone numbers

There are several services in each of these sections!

In general, currently the site suIP.biz has grown quite a lot. About a thousand people from different countries use it daily.

Analogs and mirrors suIP.biz

Due to the peculiarities of the suIP services, which for the most part are Linux utilities that run on the server and work for some time, due to the increased load, the suIP.biz site may be offline for some time. The site itself monitors its “health” and to prevent critical failures, it can interrupt running tasks itself. But this does not always help, because the site runs on a regular VPS hosting and is a hobby of the sole author. Therefore, work breaks reach hours in the worst situations.

If for any reason you cannot use the services of suIP.biz, then refer to the services of the site w-e-b.site - this is a similar service from the same author, located on a different server. Since w-e-b.site is aimed at English-speaking users (and the server is hosted in the USA), this site has only an English-language interface.

Reviews suIP.biz

You can leave a review and find out the latest news about the work of suIP on this page.

How to install Apache web server with PHP, MySQL and phpMyAdmin on Windows

Table of contents

1. Windows web server

2. How to install Apache on Windows

3. How to install PHP on Windows

4. PHP 8 setup

5. How to install MySQL on Windows

6. How to install phpMyAdmin on Windows

Conclusion


Windows web server

A web server is a program that is designed to process requests for websites and send website pages to users. The most popular example of a web server is Apache.

PHP is a programming language. Also, it called an environment for executing scripts written in PHP. In operating systems, including Windows, PHP can be installed independently, without a web server. In this case, programs (scripts) in PHP can be run from the command line. But web applications use PHP very often, this interpreter has become, in fact, the standard for web servers and therefore they are almost always installed together.

MySQL is a database management system (DBMS). It is also a standalone program, it is used to store data, search databases, modify and delete data. Web applications need persistent storage, so a DBMS is additionally installed for the web server. By the way, it is quite possible that you have heard about MariaDB - this is also a DBMS. MySQL came first, and then MariaDB forked from it. For web applications, both of these DBMS are interchangeable, that is, there is no difference. In this tutorial I will show the installation using MySQL as an example.

As for phpMyAdmin, this is just a PHP script that is designed to work with databases - it visually displays their contents, allows you to perform tasks in the graphical interface such as creating databases, creating tables, adding, changing and deleting information, etc. For this reason phpMyAdmin is quite popular, although it is not a required part of the web server.

The peculiarity of Apache and other web server components is that they have their roots in Linux. And these programs apply the basic concepts of this operating system in their work. For example, programs are very flexible in customization - you can install in any folder, sites can also be placed in any folder, including on another drive, not on the one where the web server itself is installed. Even the log files can be moved to the third disk and so on. The web server has many built-in modules - you can enable or disable them in any combination, you can add external modules. You can create many sites on the same web server and customize each site. But this flexible setting is done through text files - this is the approach (without a graphical interface) that allows you to describe any configuration

Do not be afraid of this - I will tell you what files need to be edited and what exactly to write in them.

We will not do any complex settings - our goal is just to install the web server on Windows. However, it would be strange not to use that kind of power in tuning at all. We will split the server into two directories: the first will contain executable files, and the second will contain data (website and database files). In the future, when the need arises to make backups of information or update the web server, you will understand how convenient this approach is!

We will install the server in a separate directory. To do this, create the “Server” directory in the root of the C:\ drive. Create 2 subdirectories in this directory: “bin” (for executable files) and “data” (for sites and databases).

Go to the “data” directory and create subfolders “DB” (for databases) and “htdocs” (for web sites) there.

Go to the “C:\Server\data\DB\” directory and create an empty “data” folder there.

For the operation of all components of the web server, the file “Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2019" is required - this is the official file from Microsoft. To download it follow the link. After downloading, run this file and complete the installation.

The preparatory steps are completed, we proceed to the installation of the web server components.

How to install Apache on Windows

Go to apachelounge.com/download and download the .zip archive with the web server:

Unpack the “Apache24” folder from this archive to “C:\Server\bin\”.

Go to the “C:\Server\bin\Apache24\conf\” directory and open the httpd.conf file with any text editor.

In it, we need to replace a number of lines.

Change

Define SRVROOT "c:/Apache24"

on

Define SRVROOT "c:/Server/bin/Apache24"

change

#ServerName www.example.com:80

on

ServerName localhost

change

DocumentRoot "${SRVROOT}/htdocs"
<Directory "${SRVROOT}/htdocs">

on

DocumentRoot "c:/Server/data/htdocs"
<Directory "c:/Server/data/htdocs">

change

DirectoryIndex index.html

on

DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.htm

change

# AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
# It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
#   AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
#
AllowOverride None

on

# AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
# It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
#   AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
#
AllowOverride All

and change

#LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so

on

LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so

We save and close the file. That's it, Apache configuration is complete!

Open a command prompt (you can do this by pressing the Win+x keys at the same time). 

Select Windows PowerShell (Admin) there and copy there:

c:\Server\bin\Apache24\bin\httpd.exe -k install

Press Enter.

If you get a request from the firewall regarding Apache, then click Allow access.

Now we enter into the command line:

c:\Server\bin\Apache24\bin\httpd.exe -k start

And press Enter.

Now in the browser, type http://localhost/ and see the following:

This means the web server is running. To see the files there, add them to the c:\Server\data\htdocs\ directory - this is the main folder for the server data, where all sites will be located.

How to install PHP on Windows

Download PHP 8 from windows.php.net/download. Choose Thread Safe version, pay attention to select 64-bit computer architecture.

In the c:\Server\bin\ folder, create a “PHP” directory and copy the contents of the just downloaded archive into it.

In the file c:\Server\bin\Apache24\conf\httpd.conf at the very end we add the lines:

PHPIniDir "C:/Server/bin/PHP"
AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php
LoadModule php_module "C:/Server/bin/php/php8apache2_4.dll"

And restart Apache:

c:\Server\bin\Apache24\bin\httpd.exe -k restart

In the c:\Server\data\htdocs\ directory, create a file called i.php, copy it to this file:

<?php
phpinfo ();

In your browser, open the link http://localhost/i.php. If you see something similar, then PHP is working:

PHP 8 setup

PHP is configured in the php.ini file. There is no php.ini in the zip archives intended for manual installation and for updates (this is done on purpose so that you do not accidentally delete your settings file during the update). But there are two others called php.ini-development and php.ini-production. Any of them, during manual installation, can be renamed to php.ini and further configured. On the localhost we will use php.ini-development.

Open the php.ini file with any text editor, looking for the line

;extension_dir = "ext"

and replace it with

extension_dir = "C:\Server\bin\PHP\ext\"

Now find the line group:

;extension=bz2
;extension=curl
;extension=ffi
;extension=ftp
;extension=fileinfo
;extension=gd
;extension=gettext
;extension=gmp
;extension=intl
;extension=imap
;extension=ldap
;extension=mbstring
;extension=exif      ; Must be after mbstring as it depends on it
;extension=mysqli
;extension=oci8_12c  ; Use with Oracle Database 12c Instant Client
;extension=oci8_19  ; Use with Oracle Database 19 Instant Client
;extension=odbc
;extension=openssl
;extension=pdo_firebird
;extension=pdo_mysql
;extension=pdo_oci
;extension=pdo_odbc
;extension=pdo_pgsql
;extension=pdo_sqlite
;extension=pgsql
;extension=shmop

and replace it with:

extension=bz2
extension=curl
extension=ffi
extension=ftp
extension=fileinfo
extension=gd
extension=gettext
extension=gmp
extension=intl
extension=imap
extension=ldap
extension=mbstring
extension=exif      ; Must be after mbstring as it depends on it
extension=mysqli
;extension=oci8_12c  ; Use with Oracle Database 12c Instant Client
extension=odbc
extension=openssl
;extension=pdo_firebird
extension=pdo_mysql
;extension=pdo_oci
extension=pdo_odbc
extension=pdo_pgsql
extension=pdo_sqlite
extension=pgsql
extension=shmop

now uncomment this line group:

;extension=soap
;extension=sockets
;extension=sodium
;extension=sqlite3
;extension=tidy
;extension=xsl 

it should look like this:

extension=soap
extension=sockets
extension=sodium
extension=sqlite3
extension=tidy
extension=xsl

With these actions, we enabled the extensions. They may be needed in different situations for different scripts. Save the file and restart Apache.

c:\Server\bin\Apache24\bin\httpd.exe -k restart

It is highly recommended to add the path to PHP to your “PATH” environment variable on Windows.

Related: How to add PHP path to %PATH% environment variable on Windows

How to install MySQL on Windows

The free version of MySQL is called MySQL Community Server. It can be downloaded from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/. There is an executable installer on the same page, but I recommend downloading the ZIP archive.

On the download page, we are offered to register or log into an existing account - but this is optional. Just click on the link “No thanks, just start my download”.

Unpack the files from the just downloaded archive into the c:\Server\bin\ directory. The unpacked folder will be named approximately mysql-8.0.23-winx64 (depending on the version), rename it to mysql-8.0.

We go into this folder and create the my.ini file there. Now open this file with any text editor and add the following lines there:

[mysqld]
sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
datadir="c:/Server/data/DB/data/"
default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password

Save and close it.

The configuration is complete, but you still need to perform the initialization and installation, for this we open the command line as administrator and sequentially enter there:

C:\Server\bin\mysql-8.0\bin\mysqld --initialize-insecure --user=root
C:\Server\bin\mysql-8.0\bin\mysqld --install
net start mysql

At the end of this process, the automatically generated files should appear in the C:\Server\data\DB\data\ directory.

The MySQL service will now start every time Windows starts.

How to install phpMyAdmin on Windows

The phpMyAdmin download site is phpmyadmin.net.

Direct link to the most recent version: phpMyAdmin-latest-all-languages.zip.

Copy the contents of the just downloaded archive to the c:\Server\data\htdocs\ directory. Rename this folder to “phpmyadmin”.

In the c:\Server\data\htdocs\phpmyadmin\ directory, create a config.inc.php file and copy there:

<?php

/* Servers configuration */
$i = 0;

/* Server: localhost [1] */
$i++;
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['verbose'] = '';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['port'] = '';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['socket'] = '';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['connect_type'] = 'tcp';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'cookie';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'root';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['nopassword'] = true;
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowNoPassword'] = true;

/* End of servers configuration */

$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = 'kjLGJ8g;Hj3mlHy+Gd~FE3mN{gIATs^1lX+T=KVYv{ubK*U0V';
$cfg['DefaultLang'] = 'en';
$cfg['ServerDefault'] = 1;
$cfg['UploadDir'] = '';
$cfg['SaveDir'] = '';

?>

In the browser, type http://localhost/phpmyadmin/

Enter root as the username. Leave the password field blank.

Conclusion

That's it - you now have your own personal local web server on your home computer.

If suddenly something didn't work out for you, then most likely you missed a step or did it incorrectly - try to do everything exactly according to the instructions. If the problem persists, then write about your error in the comments.

How to find out the publication date of any article

The world is changing rapidly, the information published 5 years ago is rarely valuable at the present time, because everything has changed too much: the mentioned store no longer exists, and a huge shopping mall was built in its place; the procedure for obtaining a visa has changed; the proposed service has lost relevance along with the disappearance of a whole economy field.

Sometimes the information is not of interest if it was published more than 3 or even more than 1 year ago. If we are talking about current events (news), then today's morning publication deserves attention only until the appearance of today's evening publication on this issue.

Some sites provide the date of publication, but some do not. This article will show you how to find out the date a WordPress article was published, as well as the date of publication on other CMS.

Sometimes you need to find out the actual time of publication of an article if there is any doubt that the displayed date is correct – many sites practice ‘refreshing’ the date of publication of the article – after updating the material, and sometimes even without it.

1. Carefully look for the date of publication or change on the page itself

Look on the page, perhaps with Ctrl+f, for words like:

  • Last updated
  • Updated
  • Posted

Perhaps the date of publication is present, but it is not easy to find among the many elements of website design and advertising.

2. Date output on other sections of a site

Quite often, for the site owner, the date of publication of the article is not indicated, not for the reason that he wants to hide it, but simply because there was no place for it in the design template. In these cases, the publication date can be found on the main page, in the categories of the site and its other sections:

By the way, such screenshots of the entire page of the site, with support for rendering and JavaScript, you can do using this service.

3. View the source code

Many plugins in meta tags indicate information such as:

  • published_time
  • modified_time
  • updated_time

Example:

<meta property="article:published_time" content="2020-04-08T13:44:28+00:00" />
<meta property="article:modified_time" content="2020-04-08T13:44:32+00:00" />
<meta property="og:updated_time" content="2020-04-08T13:44:32+00:00" />

To simplify the search, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+f, because sometimes the source code is unreadable due to the fact that spaces have been removed from it (to speed up page loading).

4. Look at the folder where the images are uploaded

This method is primarily suitable for WordPress, but it cannot be ruled out that other CMS does this way (if you know, write in the comments).

The bottom line is that WordPress saves the images for this article into files of the form https://site.com/wp-content/uploads/YEAR/MONTH/PICTURE.png (for example, https://www.repairwin.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/image-9.png).

Please note that there is YEAR/MONTH in the path, which are quite truthful (truer than the tags above), saying that the article was created in July 2019.

Look for the string “/uploads/”, use Ctrl+f for help:

5. Search engines know the date of publication

Enter in Google a search query of the form:

inurl:PAGE_ADDRESS

Instead of PAGE_ADDRESS, specify the URL of the post whose publication date you are interested in, for example:

inurl:https://hackware.ru/?p=5996

Yandex also knows how to do this, but instead of inurl: you need to use url:. Unfortunately, Yandex shows the publication date only for very fresh pages:

url:https://suay.ru/?p=4313

6. Look at the first comment

This is an indirect and approximate method, but it can clearly show that the indicated date of publication of the page is not true.

The point is very simple: find the first comment by date – the publication date of the article cannot be later than it.

How to display the date of publication (update) of a page. Do I need to indicate the date of publication of the article

I am calm about the presence or absence of a publication date, since a fresh date does not guarantee that it is not a copy-paste of some junk. In addition, not all topics have an expiration date and/or updated analogues. But in general, it is more pleasant when the publication date and the date of modification are present – in case you need them for some reason, then you do not need to look for them.

In WordPress, the date of the last page modification can be added using the free “WP Last Modified Info plugin” – install and activate this plugin from the WordPress dashboard.

Go to the settings page of this plugin on the “Post Options” tab. There, turn on “Enable for Posts on Frontend”:

If you want the date of the last change to be displayed at the bottom of the article (and not at the beginning), then change the setting of “Last Modified Info Display Method” from “Before Content” to “After Content”.

Save your changes.

Conclusion

Do you know other ways or for other CMS (not WordPress)? Great, share them in the comments – it will be interesting to discuss!

Multi-button mouse for increased productivity

Most of us hold onto this appliance most of the day. I mean a computer mouse.

This is my mouse from 2011-2012 to January 2016 (I had to replace it due to problems with the left mouse button, we fought to the last and I even set the right button to work as LMB):

Here is my mouse from January 2016 to November 2019 (again, the problem with the left button):

And here is my new mouse:

These are only those mice whose photos I have preserved (I just took them from the old blog, do not think that I am crazy to the extent that I store photos of computer mice…). For a very long time, I use precisely multi-button mice. And you know what? It's damn convenient!

On the mouse buttons I set up the most frequently used actions (keyboard shortcuts) that I use really often and in which the hand usually rests on the mouse. For example, it takes me a lot of time to write articles on websites, the most common actions are copying and pasting text (for creating blocks of code, for example), images (for arranging images in the text of an article), links (for pasting links into text). These actions, as well as highlighting in bold, undo the last action, deleting the character and Enter, I brought to the mouse buttons. This allows me to focus on the screen (no need to move your eyes to the keyboard to find the appropriate button combinations), and thanks to this, the process of creating article markup is significantly accelerated.

Before I started working with websites, I spent most of my time in the office Word editor – similarly, such combinations made it possible to slightly facilitate the process of formatting documents.

You can configure absolutely any action on the mouse buttons: keyboard shortcuts, launching certain applications, switching tracks, increasing/decreasing the sound volume – anything you can do using the keyboard or using the program menu.

If you choose the right actions for the buttons and spend time getting used to working with the mouse, then it will become a little easier and a little faster.

My previous mouse model was the Zelotes C-12. A new mouse was the model Zelotes C-13. You can still buy Zelotes C-12, and the C-12 and C-13 models are practically the same (including the price), but I would recommend the newer Zelotes C-13, since it has improved sensor characteristics and a new button is added (at the bottom of the mouse – to switch profiles).

Advantages of the Zelotes C-13 mouse:

  • cheap – about $ 20
  • many buttons – 13 pieces
  • any of 13 buttons of this mouse can be configured for any action
  • supports macro recording and binding from to mouse buttons
  • All saved settings are stored in the mouse itself, that is, you can connect it to another computer, and the functions of all buttons are saved!
  • all functions can be used on Linux, since all settings are stored in the mouse itself
  • two profiles, for each of which you can configure the buttons in your own way. Switching between profiles is done using the button on the mouse itself.
  • customizable RGB backlight – several animation options, or the choice of one color
  • you can configure different animation options for each of the profiles – thanks to this it is easy to distinguish which profile is currently active
  • switching by buttons on the mouse DPI modes (the cursor starts moving faster or slower)
  • there are weights that can be removed if you prefer lightweight mice
  • amazing sensor, excellent positioning on any surface

Frankly, if this mouse cost $200, I would buy it anyway – this is an amazing model and without a multi-button mouse I feel like without one hand… Fortunately, this mouse costs only about $20.

You can find fault and say that the mouse is not wireless or that it does not have a special mat with a soft wrist rest (yes, I also had such mice). I liked the wrist rest, although over time the gel leaked out of it. As for the wire, I like it more, because I don’t need to think about recharging the battery. Of course, the wire should be positioned so that it never touches anything, so that when you move the mouse it feels as little as possible, otherwise it really causes discomfort.

Screenshots of the button settings:

Sensor settings screenshot:

Lighting Setting:

Macro Recording Window:

If you want it too, look for it by the name Zelotes C-13 and be sure to sort the price + delivery starting with the cheapest – you can save a lot.

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