Tag: office software

How to composite and append images on the Linux command line (overlay and merge images)

The “magick” utility is part of the ImageMagick package. For details on installing ImageMagick, including which dependencies need to be installed to support the maximum number of formats, as well as a description of the command structure, examples of usage and all options, see the article: ImageMagick guide: installing, using, and troubleshooting.

Let’s consider how to overlay an image on an image and merge images.

The command to overlay one image on another consists of three main parts:

  1. The name of the initial image that will act as the background.
  2. The name of the second image to overlay the first. Geometry options, as well as the “-composite” option. This item can be repeated many times to overlay several images on one.
  3. The name of the output file.

In the following example, IMAGE.jpg will be overlaid with IMAGE1.jpg, whose width will be 400 pixels, this image will be shifted from the left edge by 50 pixels and from the top by 10 pixels, the new image will be saved to the test27.jpg file:

magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg -geometry 400x300+50+10 -composite test27.jpg

Please note that the overlay image will have a width of 400 pixels, and the height will be adjusted automatically to maintain the original proportions of the image, see the Image Geometry section for details.

If you want to place the image in the center, in one of the corners, or in the middle of one of the sides, then instead of specifying an offset, you can use the -gravity option.

With the -gravity option you can change the origin, for example:

magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg -gravity North -geometry 400x300+0+0 -composite test27.jpg
magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg -gravity South -geometry 400x300+0+0 -composite test27.jpg
magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg -gravity SouthWest -geometry 400x300+0+0 -composite test27.jpg

See also The -gravity option defines the origin for the Offset.

A similar command, in which images from IMAGE1.jpg to IMAGE6.jpg are superimposed on the IMAGE.jpg image:

magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg -geometry 400x300+50+10 -composite IMAGE2.jpg -geometry 330x230+225+210 -composite IMAGE3.jpg -geometry 350x300+475+260 -composite IMAGE4.jpg -geometry 400x300+25+410 -composite IMAGE5.jpg -geometry 400x300+625+10 -composite IMAGE6.jpg -geometry 350x300+600+450 -composite test28.jpg

Note that the -composite option is applied after each image!

To better understand the logic, brackets have been added to the previous command that combine the image and its settings, this command does not differ from the previous one in its result:

magick IMAGE.jpg \( IMAGE1.jpg -geometry 400x300+50+10 \) -composite \( IMAGE2.jpg -geometry 330x230+225+210 \) -composite \( IMAGE3.jpg -geometry 350x300+475+260 \) -composite \( IMAGE4.jpg -geometry 400x300+25+410 \) -composite \( IMAGE5.jpg -geometry 400x300+625+10 \) -composite \( IMAGE6.jpg -geometry 350x300+600+450 \) -composite b.jpg

Since the height is selected automatically, it can be omitted:

magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg -geometry 400x+50+10 -composite IMAGE2.jpg -geometry 330x+225+210 -composite IMAGE3.jpg -geometry 350x+475+260 -composite IMAGE4.jpg -geometry 400x+25+410 -composite IMAGE5.jpg -geometry 400x+625+10 -composite IMAGE6.jpg -geometry 350x+600+450 -composite b.jpg

As a background, instead of a photo, you can specify the background color, for this use the -size SIZE canvas:COLOR set of options. For example, the following command overlays images on a 1000×750 red background:

magick -size 1000x750 canvas:red IMAGE1.jpg -geometry 400x300+50+10 -composite IMAGE2.jpg -geometry 330x230+225+210 -composite IMAGE3.jpg -geometry 350x300+475+260 -composite IMAGE4.jpg -geometry 400x300+25+410 -composite IMAGE5.jpg -geometry 400x300+625+10 -composite IMAGE6.jpg -geometry 350x300+600+450 -composite test29.jpg

How to merge photos without overlay

The -append option connects the current images vertically or horizontally with +append.

This option creates one longer image by concatenating all current images in sequence from top to bottom.

magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg -append test31.jpg

Use +append to add images from left to right.

magick IMAGE.jpg IMAGE1.jpg +append test31.jpg

If they have different widths, the narrower images are padded with the current background color setting, and their position relative to each other can be controlled by the current -gravity setting.

The background color can be set with the -background COLOR option. For example:

magick IMAGE.jpg -background Violet IMAGE1.jpg -append test30.jpg

You can also use the -scale option to scale images to the same size:

magick IMAGE.jpg -scale 1000 IMAGE1.jpg -scale 1000 -append test30.jpg

The previous command will bring both images to a width of 1000px and stack them on top of each other.

A similar command, but instead of placing the images on top of each other, it will place them from left to right (horizontally):

magick IMAGE.jpg -scale 1000 IMAGE1.jpg -scale 1000 +append test30.jpg

For more flexible options, including the ability to add space between images, use -smush.

The -smush OFFSET option adds a sequence of images together, ignoring transparency.

-smush is a more flexible version of -append, joining images in sequence from top to bottom (-smush) or left to right (+smush) with spacing between images according to the specified offset.

If the offset is negative, the images will overlap by that amount.

-smush respects -gravity. Any empty space will be filled with the background color.

For zero offset images and transparent images, the opaque parts of the two images will be aligned as closely as possible without overlapping.

An example of a command with the -smush option (brings images to the same width of 1000 pixels and places them on top of each other, separated by a space of 100 pixels):

magick IMAGE.jpg -scale 1000 -background Violet IMAGE1.jpg -scale 1000 -smush 100 test31.jpg

How to convert JPG to PDF

The article “How to convert PDF to JPG using command line in Linux” shows how to split a PDF file into separate pages while converting them to images.

But what if you want to do the opposite? How to assemble JPG images into a PDF file? This article is devoted to this, which will tell you how to create a single PDF document from JPG files.

The convert utility from the ImageMagick package does a great job of combining images (JPG and other formats) into PDF.

For details on installing ImageMagick, including which dependencies need to be installed to support the maximum number of formats, see the article: ImageMagick guide: installing, using, and troubleshooting.

To convert a single image to PDF, run the following command:

convert PICTURE.jpg RESULT.pdf


convert PL48536179-5.jpg out.pdf

You can specify multiple input .jpg files at once, for example:

convert PL48536179-5.jpg PL48536179-6.jpg PL48536179-7.jpg out.pdf

They will be added one by one to the generated PDF file.

If there are many files and they have a common prefix, then you can use the wildcard character * to add several files at once:

convert PL48536179* out.pdf

Or like this:

convert PL*.jpg out.pdf

The following command will create a PDF file from all JPG files in the current directory:

convert *.jpg out.pdf

By default, a PDF file is created in the highest quality. If you want to reduce the size of the output file, then specify the -quality option with a value less than 100, for example:

convert -quality 70 PL*.jpg out2.pdf

As you can see, the size of the PDF file has indeed decreased:

Online JPG to PDF conversion service

If you are a Windows user, or you do not want to install new utilities and deal with the command line to convert JPG to PDF, then you can collect JPG files into one PDF document on the page of the Online service for converting JPG to PDF: https://suip.biz/?act=convert-jpg-to-pdf

Brief instructions for use are given there, the main point is that if there are several files, then they must be placed in a ZIP archive before uploading.

How to convert PDF to JPG using command line in Linux (SOLVED)

PDF files are not very easy to split into image files in most programs that are used to open these files. However, there are several command line utilities for this. This article will show you how to convert PDF to JPEG on the Linux command line.

ImageMagick (convert)

To convert PDF to individual image files, let's start with the ImageMagick utility.

For details on installing ImageMagick, including which dependencies need to be installed to support the maximum number of formats, see the article: ImageMagick guide: installing, using, and troubleshooting.

Use convert like this:

convert input.pdf output.jpg

For good quality use these options

convert -density 300 -quality 100 in.pdf out.jpg

If you encounter errors, then the following articles may help you:

pdftoppm (from the poppler package)

On Debian, Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Kali Linux and their derivatives, you can install this package with this command:

sudo apt install poppler-utils

On Arch Linux, Manjaro and their derivatives, to install, run the command:

sudo pacman -S poppler

The command format is the following:

pdftoppm -jpeg -r 300 input.pdf output

In this command:

  • -jpeg sets the output image format to JPG,
  • -r 300 sets output image resolution to 300 dpi,
  • output will be the prefix for all image pages that will be numbered and placed in your current directory you are working with.

However, in my opinion, the best way is to first use “mkdir -p images” to create the “images” directory, and then set the output to images/pg so that all output images with a pg file prefix in front of each of their numbers are neatly placed in just that created directory images.

So here are my favorite commands:

We create files with a size of ~1 MB per page. Output in .jpg format at 300 dpi:

mkdir -p images
pdftoppm -jpeg -r 300 mypdf.pdf images/pg

We create files with a size of ~2 MB per page. Output in .jpg format at maximum quality (least compression) and still at 300 dpi:

mkdir -p images
pdftoppm -jpeg -jpegopt quality=100 -r 300 mypdf.pdf images/pg

If you need more resolution, you can try 600 DPI:

mkdir -p images
pdftoppm -jpeg -r 600 mypdf.pdf images/pg

… or 1200 dpi:

mkdir -p images
pdftoppm -jpeg -r 1200 mypdf.pdf images/pg

To create a single file, run:

pdftoppm -singlefile -jpeg -r 300 input.pdf output

vips (from libvips package)

On Debian, Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Kali Linux and their derivatives, you can install this package with this command:

sudo apt install libvips-tools

On Arch Linux, Manjaro and their derivatives, to install, run the command:

sudo pacman -S libvips

libvips can quickly convert PDF → JPEG. This program is present in the standard repositories of most Linux distributions, for macos you can use homebrew, and the Windows binary can be downloaded from the libvips site.

This command will convert PDF to JPG with default resolution (72):

vips copy somefile.pdf somefile.jpg

You can use the dpi option to set a different rendering resolution, like so:

vips copy somefile.pdf[dpi=600] somefile.jpg

You can select specific pages:

vips copy somefile.pdf[dpi=600,page=12] somefile.jpg

Or render five pages, starting with the third, like this:

vips copy somefile.pdf[dpi=600,page=3,n=5] somefile.jpg

The documentation for pdfload has all the options.

Comparison of program speeds:

time -f %M:%e convert -density 300 r8.pdf[3] x.jpg

time -f %M:%e pdftoppm -jpeg -r 300 -f 3 -l 3 r8.pdf x.jpg

time -f %M:%e vips copy r8.pdf[page=3,dpi=300] x.jpg

So libvips is about 4 times faster and requires half the memory, at least in this test.

Online service to convert PDF to JPG

If you are a Windows user, or you do not want to install new utilities and deal with the command line to convert PDF to JPG, then you can split PDF files into separate images on the page of the Online service for converting PDF to JPG: https://suip.biz/?act=convert-pdf-to-jpg

This online service supports both single-page and multi-page PDF files. In the case of converting a multi-page PDF document, the files with page pictures will be placed in an archive for convenience, which can be downloaded at a time, regardless of the number of JPG files.

See also: How to convert JPG to PDF

All the ‘tips of the day’ LibreOffice

On this page, I have collected all the “Tips of the Day” that LibreOffice displays once a day when the program starts.

A few notes:

  • the lines are taken from the latest version of the program and will be updated as new versions of LibreOffice are released
  • in some tips the text or link is missing – I checked the source code files – there the text is the same
  • some numbers are missing – apparently, this is due to the fact that “Tips of the Day” is constantly updated. For example, in the previous version of the program there were more than 300, and in the last at the time of writing, a little more than 200

If you have your own interesting tips on using LibreOffice, then share them in the comments!

# Tips
Tip # 1 LibreOffice offers a variety of user interface options to make you feel at home
Tip # 2 Need to allow changes to parts of a read-only document in Writer? Insert frames or sections that can authorize changes. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/section_edit.html
Tip # 3 To print the notes of your slides go to File ▸ Print ▸ Impress tab and select Notes under Document ▸ Type.
Tip # 4 To start temporarily with a fresh user profile, or to restore a non-working LibreOffice, use Help ▸ Restart in Safe Mode. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/01/profile_safe_mode.html
Tip # 5 Writing a book? LibreOffice master document lets you manage large documents as a container for individual LibreOffice Writer files.
Tip # 6 You can create editable Hybrid PDFs with LibreOffice. https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Documentation/HowTo/CreateAHybridPDF
Tip # 7 Explore the ten different functions in the status bar (at the bottom of the document window). Place the cursor over each field for an explanation. If not visible, use View ▸ Status Bar.
Tip # 8 Want to sum a cell through several sheets? Refer to the range of sheets e.g. =SUM(Sheet1.A1:Sheet3.A1).
Tip # 9 You can create fillable form documents (even PDFs) with LibreOffice. https://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-to-create-interactive-pdfs-with-libreoffice
Tip # 10 Cannot see all the text in a cell? Expand the input line in the formula bar and you can scroll.
Tip # 11 Optimize your table layout with Table ▸ Size ▸ Distribute Rows / Columns Evenly.
Tip # 12 Find all expressions in brackets per Edit ▸ Find and Replace ▸ Find ▸ \([^)]+\) (check “Regular expressions”)
Tip # 13 Select a different icon set from Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ View ▸ User Interface ▸ Icon style.
Tip # 14 You can display a number as a fraction (0.125 = 1/8): Format ▸ Cells, Number ▸ Fraction.
Tip # 15 To remove a hyperlink but keep its text, right-click on the hyperlink, and use “Remove Hyperlink”.
Tip # 16 To remove several hyperlinks at once, select the text with the hyperlinks, then right-click and use “Remove Hyperlink”.
Tip # 17 To zoom a selection to fit the entire window in Draw, use the / (divide key) on the number pad.
Tip # 18 Click a column field (row) PivotTable and press F12 to group data. Choices adapt to content: Date (month, quarter, year), number (classes)
Tip # 19 You can restart the slide show after a pause specified at Slide Show ▸ Slide Show Settings ▸ Loop and repeat.
Tip # 20 To distribute some text in multi-columns select the text and apply Format ▸ Columns.
Tip # 21 Use View ▸ Value Highlighting to display cell contents in colors: Text/black, Formulas/green, Numbers/blue, Protected cells/grey background. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/03080000.html
Tip # 22 You can create different master pages in a presentation template: View ▸ Master Slide and Slide ▸ New Master (or per toolbar or right click in slide pane).
Tip # 23 Want to sort a pivot table? Click on drop-list’s arrow in the row/col header and select sort method: ascending, descending, or custom.
Tip # 24 Display photos or images with different shapes in Writer. Insert and select shape, then Insert ▸ Image. To adjust image, right-click on selected shape and choose Area.
Tip # 25 Use Page/Slide ▸ Properties ▸ “Fit object to paper format” in Draw/Impress to resize the objects so that they fit on your chosen paper format.
Tip # 26 Fit the entire page in a Draw window, use * on the number pad.
Tip # 27 In a Draw page, use “-” to zoom out; “+” to zoom in.
Tip # 28 Want to show the contents of another document within your document? Use Insert ▸ Section and select Link. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/section_insert.html#par_id3153404
Tip # 29 To automatically number table rows in Writer, select the relevant column, then apply a List Style. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/01/05130004.html
Tip # 30 LibreOffice allows you to use assistive tools, such as external screen readers, Braille devices or speech recognition input devices. https://www.libreoffice.org/get-help/accessibility/
Tip # 31 Want to sort a series in LibreOffice Calc such as A1, A2, A3, A11, A15, not in alphabetical order but on the number? Enable natural sort in the Options tab. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/12030200.html
Tip # 32 You can change the default function in the status bar: right click on the area.
Tip # 33 Want to add many of the same shapes in Draw/Impress? Double-click a tool in the drawing toolbar to use it for repeated tasks.
Tip # 34 CTRL+Shift+F9 recalculates all formulas in all spreadsheets.
Tip # 35 Want to keep a part of an editable document as read-only? Insert ▸ Section. Add text to the section, then right-click “Edit Section” and check “Protect”.
Tip # 36 Use the Backspace key instead of Delete in Calc. You can choose what to delete.
Tip # 37 Best way to fix bad-looking MS Word table cells via Table ▸ Size ▸ Optimal Row Height / Column Width.
Tip # 38 To repeat a table heading when a table spans over a page, use Table ▸ Table Properties ▸ Text Flow ▸ Repeat heading.
Tip # 39 To quickly insert or delete rows, select the desired number of rows (or columns) and press CTRL+ to add or CTRL- to delete.
Tip # 40 To repeat rows/columns on every pages use Format ▸ Print Ranges ▸ Edit.
Tip # 41 Insert images and photos into shapes in Draw and Impress. Right-click on a shape, choose Area ▸ Image ▸ Add/Import, and use Options to adjust appearance.
Tip # 42 Need to insert the date in a spreadsheet cell? Type CTRL+; or Shift+CTRL+; to insert the time.
Tip # 43 Insert your metadata in your document with Insert ▸ Fields ▸ More Fields… ▸ Document or DocInformation.
Tip # 44 Get help from the community via the Ask portal. https://ask.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 45 Use Shift+Space to select the current row and CTRL+Space to select the current column.
Tip # 46 You can move an object to another layer by holding it until its edges flash, then drag it to the tab of the layer you want to move it to.
Tip # 47 Data ▸ Validity allows you to create drop-down lists where the user selects a value instead of typing. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/guide/validity.html
Tip # 48 Hold down CTRL and turn the mouse wheel to change the zoom factor.
Tip # 49 LibreOffice has great extensions to increase your productivity—check them out. https://extensions.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 50 Want to count words for just one particular paragraph style? Use Edit ▸ Find and Replace, click Paragraph Styles, select the style in Find, and click Find All. Read the result in the status bar.
Tip # 51 Generate fully customized PDF documents with the exact format, image compression, comments, access rights, password, etc., via File ▸ Export as PDF.
Tip # 52 Writer includes LibreLogo: simple Logo-like programming environment with turtle vector graphics, DTP and graphic design. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/librelogo/LibreLogo.html
Tip # 53 Construct your own 2D shapes in Draw. Select two or more objects, and explore possibilities with Shape ▸ Combine, Shape ▸ Merge, Shape ▸ Subtract, and Shape ▸ Intersect. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/sdraw/guide/combine_etc.html
Tip # 54 Do you plan to change your computer and want to recover your customizations? See: https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/UserProfile
Tip # 55 You can toggle between the field names and the actual value with View ▸ Fields Names (or CTRL+F9).
Tip # 56 Show or hide comments in Writer by clicking the comment toggle button in the ruler.
Tip # 57 To enable macro recording, check Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ Advanced ▸ Enable macro recording.
Tip # 58 Want to insert a placeholder for an image in a Writer template? Use Insert ▸ Fields ▸ More fields, click Functions tab, choose PlaceHolder for Type and Image for Format.
Tip # 59 LibreOffice supports four macro security levels (from low to very high) and trusted sources. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/01030300.html
Tip # 60 Did you know that you can attach comments to portions of text? Just use the shortcut CTRL+ALT+C.
Tip # 61 Need to move one or more paragraphs? No need to cut and paste: Use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+ALT+Arrow (Up/Down)
Tip # 62 Change the basic fonts for the predefined template or current document per Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ Basic Fonts. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/01040300.html
Tip # 63 Want to find words containing more than 10 characters? Edit ▸ Find and Replace ▸ Search ▸ [a-z]{10,} ▸ Other Options ▸ check Regular expressions.
Tip # 64 Open a CSV file as a new sheet in the current spreadsheet via Sheet ▸ Sheet from file.
Tip # 65 Typing in bold, italics, or underlined in Writer you can continue with the default attributes using just the shortcut CTRL+Shift+X (remove direct character formats).
Tip # 66 Use CTRL+ALT+Shift+V to paste the contents of the clipboard as unformatted text.
Tip # 67 Customize footnote appearance with Tools ▸ Footnotes and Endnotes…
Tip # 68 With Slide Show ▸ Custom Slide Show, reorder and pick slides to fit a slideshow to the needs of your viewers.
Tip # 69 Want to change spell checking for some part of the text? Click in the language zone of the status bar or better, apply a style.
Tip # 70 Writer can insert a blank page between two odd (even) pages that follow. Check “Print automatically inserted blank pages” in the print dialog’s LibreOffice Writer tab.
Tip # 71 You do not want to print all columns? Hide or group the ones you do not need.
Tip # 72 To modify an AutoPlay presentation, open it and after it starts, right click and select Edit in the context menu.
Tip # 73 Need to precisely position? ALT+arrow Keys move objects (shapes, pictures, formulas) by one pixel.
Tip # 74 Embedded help is available by pressing F1, if you have installed it. Otherwise check online at: https://help.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 75 Right-click in the status bar in LibreOffice Calc and select “Selection count” to display the number of selected cells.
Tip # 76 Want to have two or more columns for just a part of a LibreOffice Writer page? Insert ▸ Section, set with Columns tab, and place text in that section.
Tip # 77 Use Data ▸ Statistics for sampling, descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, correlation, and much more in LibreOffice Calc.
Tip # 78 You can copy from one sheet to another without the clipboard. Select the area to copy, CTRL+click the target sheet’s tab and use Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Fill Sheets.
Tip # 79 You can change the look of LibreOffice via Tools ▸ Options ▸ View ▸ User Interface.
Tip # 80 In LibreOffice Impress, use Insert ▸ Media ▸ Photo Album to create a slideshow from a series of pictures with the “Photo Album” feature.
Tip # 81 You can show formulas instead of results with View ▸ Show Formula (or Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Calc ▸ View ▸ Display ▸ Formulas).
Tip # 82 LibreOffice is developed by a friendly community, made up of hundreds of contributors around the world. Join us with your skills beyond coding. https://www.libreoffice.org/community/get-involved/
Tip # 83 Left-handed? Enable Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Languages ▸ Asian and check Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ View ▸ Ruler ▸ Right-aligned, which displays the scrollbar to the left.
Tip # 84 Want your chapter titles to always begin a page? Edit Heading1 (paragraph style) ▸ Text Flow ▸ Breaks and check Insert ▸ Page ▸ Before.
Tip # 85 Date/time value is just a number of days since a chosen day zero; in the number, integer part represents date, and fractional part is time (elapsed part of a day), with 0.5 representing noon.
Tip # 86 Shift+CTRL+Del deletes from cursor to the end of the current sentence.
Tip # 87 Use column or row labels in formulas. For example, if you have two columns, “Time” and “KM”, use =Time/KM to get minutes per kilometer.
Tip # 88 Annoyed by the “marching ants” around cells in Calc? Press escape to stop them; the copied content will remain available for pasting.
Tip # 89 Want to become a LibreOffice Ambassador? There are certifications for developers, admins, and trainers. https://www.documentfoundation.org/certification/program/
Tip # 90 Mix portrait and landscape orientations in a Calc spreadsheet by applying different page styles on sheets.
Tip # 91 Click on the special character icon in the toolbar to get quick access to favorite and recent characters to insert.
Tip # 92 Choose “Hierarchical View” in the Styles sidebar to see the relation between styles.
Tip # 93 You can use styles to make the tables in your document consistent. Choose one from the predefined per Styles (F11) or via Table ▸ AutoFormat.
Tip # 94 Configure use of the CTRL key to open hyperlinks? Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ Security ▸ Options ▸ “CTRL+click required to open hyperlinks”.
Tip # 95 You would like to view the calculation of individual elements of a formula, select the respective elements and press F9.
Tip # 96 You can protect cells with Format ▸ Cells ▸ Protection. To prevent insert, delete, rename, move/copy of sheets use Tools ▸ Protect Sheet. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/guide/cell_protect.html
Tip # 97 Write along a curve? Draw the line, double click, type the text, Format ▸ Text Box and Shape ▸ Fontwork.
Tip # 98 Want to display only the highest values in a spreadsheet? Select menu Data ▸ AutoFilter, click the drop-down arrow, and choose “Top10”.
Tip # 99 To remove the page number from your table of contents go to Insert ▸ Table of Contents (or right-click and Edit the previously inserted index). In the Entries tab delete the page number (#) from Structure line.
Tip # 100 With the Navigator you can select & move up/down headings and the text below the heading, in the Navigator and in the document.
Tip # 101 To quickly get a math object in Writer type your formula, mark it, and use Insert ▸ Object ▸ Formula to convert the text.
Tip # 102 With LibreOffice it is very easy to install a new dictionary: they are supplied as extensions. https://extensions.libreoffice.org/?q=&Tags[]=50
Tip # 103 LibreOffice has a portable version which gives you mobility. Even without administrator rights on your computer you can install LibreOffice Portable to your hard drive too. https://www.libreoffice.org/download/portable-versions/
Tip # 104 Writer lets you number your footnotes per page, chapter, document: Tools ▸ Footnotes and Endnotes ▸ Footnotes tab ▸ Counting.
Tip # 105 Your Writer document does not reopen with the text cursor at the same editing position it was when you saved it? Add First or Last name in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ User Data ▸ First/last name.
Tip # 106 Citation management? Use a 3rd party extension. https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Referencing_Systems_in_LibreOffice
Tip # 107 Want to insert a value in the same place on several sheets? Select the sheets: hold down CTRL key and click their tabs before entering.
Tip # 108 Want to hide some text in a document? Select the text. Insert ▸ Section, and select “Hide”. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/hidden_text.html#hd_id3148675
Tip # 109 You can customize the middle mouse button per Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ View ▸ Middle Mouse button.
Tip # 110 Want to print two portrait pages on a landscape one (reducing A4 to A5)? File ▸ Print and select 2 at “Pages per sheet”.
Tip # 111 For quick access to your document bookmarks, right-click on the page number of the status bar (lower-left corner of document window).
Tip # 112 Select an object in the document background via the Select tool in the Drawing toolbar to surround the object to select.
Tip # 113 Define texts that you often use as AutoText. You will be able to insert them by their name, shortcut or toolbar in any Writer document. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/autotext.html
Tip # 114 Play music throughout a slideshow by assigning the sound to the first slide transition without clicking the “Apply to All Slides” button.
Tip # 115 LibreOffice Calc does not calculate from left to right but respects the order Parentheses – Exponents – Multiplication – Division – Addition – Subtraction.
Tip # 116 Get LibreOffice documentation and free user guide books at: https://documentation.libreoffice.org/
Tip # 117 Want to remove all <> at once and keep the text inside? Edit ▸ Find and Replace: Search = [<>], Replace = blank and check “Regular expressions” under Other options. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/01/02100001.html
Tip # 118 Need to present a report written with Writer? File ▸ Send ▸ Outline to Presentation automatically creates a slideshow from the outline.
Tip # 119 Want to manage the presentation of hyperlinks in a spreadsheet? Insert them with the HYPERLINK function. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060109.html
Tip # 120 Uncheck Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Calc ▸ View ▸ Zoom: “Synchronize sheets” so that each sheet in Calc has its own zoom factor.
Tip # 121 You can set a color for each tab: right-click the tab or use Sheet ▸ Sheet Tab Color.
Tip # 122 Trace cells used in a formula, precedents (Shift+F9) or dependents (Shift+F5) (or use Tools ▸ Detective). For each hit you go one more step in the chain. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/06030000.html
Tip # 123 Insert and number your formulas in one step: type fn then F3. An AutoText is inserted with formula and number aligned in a table.
Tip # 124 You can create an illustration index from object names, not only from captions. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/01/05190000.html
Tip # 125 Use your Android or iPhone to remotely control your Impress presentation. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/simpress/guide/impress_remote.html
Tip # 126 Want to know how many days there are in the current month? Use the DAYSINMONTH(TODAY()) function.
Tip # 127 Your numbers are displayed as ### in your spreadsheet? The column is too narrow to display all digits.
Tip # 128 Enable massive parallel calculations of formula cells via Tools ▸ Options ▸ OpenCL. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/opencl.html
Tip # 129 Use the Connector tool from the Drawing toolbar in Draw/Impress to create nice flow charts and optionally copy/paste the object into Writer.
Tip # 130 Your donations support our worldwide community. https://www.libreoffice.org/donate/
Tip # 131 You want to add x months to a date? Use =EDATE(date;months)https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/func_edate.html
Tip # 132 To select a contiguous range of cells containing data and bounded by empty row and columns use CTRL+* (numeric key pad).
Tip # 133 Your date acceptance pattern is inappropriate? Use Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Language ▸ Date acceptance patterns to tweak the pattern.
Tip # 134 Want to export formulas to CSV? File ▸ Save As ▸ Type:Text CSV, check “Edit filter settings”, and check “Save cell formulas” in the next dialog.
Tip # 135 The presenter console is a great feature when working with LibreOffice Impress. Have you checked it out? https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/simpress/guide/presenter_console.html
Tip # 136 To delete multiple comments, select cells with comments and use Sheet ▸ Cell Comments ▸ Delete Comment.
Tip # 137 Easily convert your documents to PDF with one click by clicking on the PDF icon in the toolbar.
Tip # 138 Want to select a large range of cells without scrolling? Type the range reference (e.g. A1:A1000) in the name box then Enter.
Tip # 139 Want to know the valid command line parameters? Start soffice with --help or -h or -? https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/guide/start_parameters.html
Tip # 140 Fit your sheet or print ranges to a page with Format ▸ Page ▸ Sheet Tab ▸ Scaling Mode.
Tip # 141 Need to include a list item without a bullet or number? Use “Insert Unnumbered Entry” in the Bullets and Numbering toolbar.
Tip # 142 You can rotate cells table orientation with Table ▸ Properties… ▸ Text Flow ▸ Text orientation.
Tip # 143 In LibreOffice Draw to change the 0/0 point of the rulers, drag the intersection of the two rulers in the top left corner into the workspace.
Tip # 144 Move a column in Calc between two others in one step? Click the header then a cell in the column, keep mouse button and move to the target with ALT key.
Tip # 145 Automatically mark alphabetical index entries using a concordance file. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/indices_index.html
Tip # 146 Use Format ▸ Align (or the context menu) for precise positioning of objects in Draw/Impress: it centers on the page if one object is selected or works on the group respectively.
Tip # 147 Do not use tabs to space items on a Writer document. Depending on what you are trying to do, a borderless table can be a better choice.
Tip # 148 No need to scroll through the list at Tools ▸ Customize ▸ Keyboard to find a shortcut: just type it.
Tip # 149 LibreOffice can automatically add a numbered caption when you insert objects. See Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ AutoCaption. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/optionen/01041100.html
Tip # 150 With LibreOffice you can use your Google Mail account to do a mail merge. Fill in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ Mail Merge Email. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/form_letters_main.html
Tip # 151 Keep column headers of a sheet visible when scrolling lines via View ▸ Freeze Cells ▸ Freeze First Row.
Tip # 152 You want to start working with Basic macros? Take a look at the examples under Tools ▸ Macros ▸ Edit Macros.
Tip # 153 Apply Heading paragraph styles in Writer with shortcut keys: CTRL+1 applies Heading 1, CTRL+2 applies Heading 2, etc.
Tip # 154 Do not get lost in large documents. Use the Navigator (F5) to find your way through the content.
Tip # 155 Edit ▸ Find and Replace lets you insert special characters directly: right click in input fields or press Shift+CTRL+S.
Tip # 156 Need custom contents for metadata properties? File ▸ Properties ▸ Custom Properties tab lets you create what you want.
Tip # 157 Want to see, but not print, an object in Draw? Draw it on a layer for which the “Printable” flag is not set (right click on the tab and “Modify Layer”).
Tip # 158 To insert the current date in your document, use Insert ▸ Field ▸ Date.
Tip # 159 Got many images in your Writer document? Speed up the display by disabling View ▸ Images and charts.
Tip # 160 Use Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Random Number to generate a random series based on various distributions. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/ru/text/scalc/01/02140700.html
Tip # 161 Rename your slides in Impress to help you define “Go to page” interactions and to have a summary more explicit than Slide1, Slide2…
Tip # 162 Chapter numbering dialog lets you set text to be displayed before the chapter number. For example, type “Chapter ” to display “Chapter 1”
Tip # 163 Transpose a Writer table? Copy and paste in Calc, transpose with copy/paste special then copy/paste special ▸ Formatted text in Writer.
Tip # 164 To get the “Vertical Text” tool in the Drawing toolbar, check Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Languages ▸ Default languages ▸ Asian (and make the button visible with right-click).
Tip # 165 To quickly zoom in on range selection, right click on the zoom part of the status bar and choose Optimal.
Tip # 166 You can sign existing PDF files and also verify those signatures. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/guide/digital_signatures.html
Tip # 167 Often create one document from another? Consider using a template.
Tip # 168 Use Format ▸ Conditional Formatting ▸ Manage in Calc to find out which cells have been defined with conditional formatting. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/05120000.html
Tip # 169 Tools ▸ Detective ▸ Mark Invalid Data highlights all cells in the sheet that contain values outside the validation rules. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/06030800.html
Tip # 170 Use font embedding for greater interoperability with other office suites at File ▸ Properties ▸ Font.
Tip # 171 To convert a formula into static values you do not need to copy/paste; use Data ▸ Calculate ▸ Formula to Value.
Tip # 172 You can reformat all comments in a document by clicking the down arrow in a comment and choose “Format all Comments”.
Tip # 173 Want the same layout for the screen display and printing? Check Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Calc ▸ General ▸ Use printer metrics for text formatting.
Tip # 174 Writer helps you to make backups: with File ▸ Save a Copy you create a new document continuing to work on the original.
Tip # 175 When you have created a Style based on another, you can enter a percentage value or a point value (e.g. 110% or −2pt or +5pt).
Tip # 176 To copy a comment without losing the content of the target cell you should use Paste Special and uncheck everything except “Comments” in dialog. Use Operations “Add” to not override existing content.
Tip # 177 Batch convert your MS Office documents to OpenDocument format by the Document Converter wizard in menu File ▸ Wizards ▸ Document converter.
Tip # 178 When editing a cell in place, you can right click and Insert fields: Date, Sheet name, Document title, etc.
Tip # 179 Need to move a Writer table? Table ▸ Select ▸ Table and Insert ▸ Frame ▸ Frame and move where you want.
Tip # 180 With Tools ▸ AutoText ▸ AutoText ▸ Import you can select a Word document or a template containing the AutoText entries that you want to import.
Tip # 181 Do not insert manual breaks to separate two paragraphs. Rather change Indents & Spacing ▸ Spacing ▸ Below paragraph at the style/paragraph properties.
Tip # 182 Keep the zeros before a number by using the “leading zeroes” cell format option or format the cell as text before entering the number.
Tip # 183 Want to return to default after applying a list style? Click Bullets or Numbering On/Off tool on the Formatting toolbar.
Tip # 184 Delete all of your printing areas in one step: select all sheets, then Format ▸ Print Ranges ▸ Clear.
Tip # 185 Add background images to spreadsheets via Insert ▸ Image or drag a background from the Gallery, then Format ▸ Arrange ▸ To Background.
Tip # 186 Having trouble pasting text from PDF files or webpages into documents? Try to paste as unformatted text (CTRL+ALT+Shift+V).
Tip # 187 In Calc use TRIMMEAN() to return the mean of a data set excluding the highest and lowest values. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060182.html?DbPAR=CALC#bm_id3152966
Tip # 188 The 4th optional parameter of VLOOKUP Calc function indicates whether the first column of data is sorted. If not, enter FALSE or zero.
Tip # 189 Toolbars are contextual—they open depending on the context. If you do not want that, uncheck them from View ▸ Toolbars.
Tip # 190 You can create a master document from the current Writer document by using File ▸ Send ▸ Create Master Document.
Tip # 191 Want to center cells on a printed page in Calc? Format ▸ Page, Page ▸ Layout settings ▸ Table alignment.
Tip # 192 Frames can be linked so that the text can flow from one to the other as in desktop publishing. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/text_frame.html
Tip # 193 You can create a chart based on a Writer table by clicking in the table and choosing Insert ▸ Chart.
Tip # 194 Select options in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice Writer ▸ Formatting Aids ▸ Display to specify which non-printing characters are displayed.
Tip # 195 Want to jump to a particular page by its number? Click the left-most statusbar entry or use Edit ▸ Go To Page… or press CTRL+G.
Tip # 196 LibreOffice supports over 150 languages. https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Language_support_of_LibreOffice
Tip # 197 Uncheck Slide Show ▸ Settings ▸ Presentation always on top if you need another program displays its window to the front of your presentation.
Tip # 198 Want to find the words in bold in a Writer document? Edit ▸ Find and Replace ▸ Other options ▸ Attributes ▸ Font weight. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/finding.html
Tip # 199 You can sort paragraphs or table rows alphabetically or numerically per Tools ▸ Sort. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/01/06100000.html
Tip # 200 To insert a paragraph before (after) a section, press ALT+Enter at the beginning (end) of the section.
Tip # 201 LibreOffice has a template center to create good looking documents—check it out. https://extensions.libreoffice.org/?q=&Tags[]=118
Tip # 202 Calculate loan repayments with Calc: eg. PMT(2%/12;36;2500) interest rate per payment period 2%/12, 36 months, loan amount 2500. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060119.html?DbPAR=CALC#bm_id3149577
Tip # 203 Cannot find what you want with the VLOOKUP function in Calc? With INDEX and MATCH you can do anything! https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/01/04060109.html
Tip # 204 Want to show hidden column A? Click a cell in column B, press the left mouse button, move the mouse to the left, release. Then switch it on via Format ▸ Columns ▸ Show.
Tip # 205 To change the number of a page in Writer, go to the properties of the first paragraph and at the Text Flow tab check Break ▸ Insert and enter the number.
Tip # 206 Run LibreOffice in any browser via rollApp. https://www.rollapp.com/app/lowriter
Tip # 207 Strange error code in Calc, Err: followed by a number? This page gives the explanation: https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/05/02140000.html
Tip # 208 Include a paragraph that is not a title in the table of contents by changing Outline & Numbering in the paragraph settings to an outline level.
Tip # 209 Apart from table of contents, LibreOffice can create Alphabetical, Illustrations, Tables, Objects, Bibliography, User-Defined indexes. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/swriter/guide/indices_toc.html
Tip # 210 Unable to modify or delete a custom cell style? Check all sheets, none should be protected.
Tip # 211 You need to fill a series? Select the cell range and Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Fill Series and choose between Linear, Growth, Date and AutoFill. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/scalc/guide/calc_series.html
Tip # 212 Want to know if a cell is referred in formulas of other cells? Tools ▸ Detective ▸ Trace Dependents (Shift+F5).
Tip # 213 In the replace input field of auto correct options you can use the wildcards .*
Tip # 214 Want to duplicate the above line? Press CTRL+D or use Sheet ▸ Fill Cells ▸ Fill Down.
Tip # 215 To search in several spreadsheets, select them before you start the search.
Tip # 216 Drag & drop cells from Calc into the normal view of a slide creates a table; into the outline view, each cell creates a line in the outline.
Tip # 217 LibreOffice helps you not to enter two or more spaces in Writer. Check Tools ▸ AutoCorrect ▸ AutoCorrect Options ▸ Options ▸ Ignore double spaces.
Tip # 218 Want the cursor to go into the cell to the right, after entering a value in Calc? Use the Tab key instead of Enter.
Tip # 219 To display the scrollbar to the left, enable Tools ▸ Options ▸ Language Settings ▸ Languages ▸ Complex text and check Sheet ▸ Right-To-Left.
Tip # 220 Drag a formatted object to the Styles and Formatting window. A dialog box opens, just enter the name of the new style.
Tip # 221 New versions of LibreOffice provide new features, bug fixes, and security patches. Keep your software updated!
Tip # 222 Developing new XSLT and XML filters? https://fridrich.blogspot.com/2013/08/extending-swiss-army-knife-overview.html
Tip # 223 Press Shift+F1 to see any available extended tooltips in dialog boxes, when "Extended tips" is not enabled in Tools ▸ Options ▸ LibreOffice ▸ General. https://help.libreoffice.org/latest/en-US/text/shared/05/00000120.html


Where is the Normal.dotm analog for LibreOffice located

In the office suite MS Office there is such a concept as a template, for example, for Word this file is called Normal.dotm. In this template, you can customize styles, enter text, and make formatting settings.

The saved template can replace the Normal.dotm file and then all newly created documents will have the properties made in the template.

Alternatively, you can create multiple .dotm files with different names and different settings and use them all as templates.

LibreOffice also has template support, but there is no exact equivalent of Normal.dotm from MS Office. Nevertheless, LibreOffice even surpasses MS Office in terms of the functions of working with templates.

You can also use templates, and instead of searching and replacing the Normal.dotm file, you can make all the settings in the graphical interface.

You can create any number of templates and choose any of them as the default.

Start by opening a blank document. Make the formatting settings you want, enter the text that should be contained in all new documents (for example, division into chapters, inserting a table of contents, page numbers, choosing a default text language, paragraph style, etc.).

When your template is ready, go to File → Template → Save as Template. Come up with a name for your template, choose a template category.

You can also immediately enable the “Set as default template” option.

When everything is ready, click the “Save” button.

Or later you can go to File → Template → Manage Templates, select the template you want to use as default, right-click on it and select “Set as Default”.

The default template will have an icon with a green checkmark.

To find out the path where your templates are stored, go to Tools → Options → LibreOffice → Paths.

On Linux, custom templates are stored in ~/.config/libreoffice/4/user/template/.

You can choose a different template to use as the default at any time. To do this, go to File → Templates → Manage Templates and select the desired template.

There you can also restore the original template, for this click the menu button in the form of three horizontal stripes and click “Reset Default Template”.

In the same menu, you can create and delete categories of templates, which will allow you to organize work with a large number of templates used as templates for various documents.

LibreOffice opens sftp connection (SOLVED)

sftp is a utility from the OpenSSH package that combines the functions of FTP and SSH, that is, it provides convenient access to the remote file system, allowing you to edit, copy, delete files on the server in a graphical interface. In this case, the connection and data exchange takes place over a secure, encrypted channel.

After connecting via sftp, some applications can mount the remote file system to the local one, as a result, you can work with remote files as if they were on the local computer.

You can make bookmarks in the file manager by saving links of the form:


Clicking on such a link will connect and mount the remote file system.

Spontaneous sftp connections appear from time to time

Some time ago, I began to notice that the remote file system is mounted, that is, an sftp connection is made, although I did not take any action for this.

Connections via sftp occurred spontaneously – I could not determine what caused them and began to suspect that the system was infected with a virus.

A detailed analysis of the process tree showed that for some inexplicable reason, LibreOffice starts an SSH process that takes part in the sftp connection.

Finally, I figured out that LibreOffice is the cause of the involuntary sftp connections.

As it turned out, LibreOffice starts an sftp connection if there is a file in the “Recent Documents” list that was opened via sftp:

In order for LibreOffice to stop automatically opening sftp connections, you need to “Clear List” of recent files in the LibreOffice menu.

What program to open .docbook files (DocBook)

In fact, .docbook files are not meant to be read - they are meant to be converted to HTML, man, PDF, DOCX, ODT, EPUB, FictionBook2, and many others.

What is DocBook?

DocBook is an XML-based standard used in many modern documentation tasks. When you want to create a DocBook document source, you write XML files that describe the document's layout, paragraphing, and other attributes. The structure of the XML file may sound familiar to you if you've seen HTML before. XML tends to be an improvement over the old HTML specification and can be used to create complete web pages and other markup documents.

What are the benefits of DocBook?

DocBook is the OASIS standard and the format in which most open source projects store their documentation. Docbook is developed as an open source application. The project is hosted on SourceForge and is available under the GPL license. DocBook is available as Document Type Definition (DTD) and XML Schema (XSD). The project has a large developer and support community, spanning both open source and commercial groups.

The most important reasons why DocBook is used in projects:

  • DocBook is the standard
  • DocBook open source
  • DocBook is used in most large projects
  • DocBook has a large developer and support community.

DocBook is also an XML application, and XML technologies solve a number of publishing problems for documentation teams, including:

  • Single source
  • Joint development
  • Cross-platform editing
  • Multichannel publishing
  • Improving the quality and consistency of information
  • Expanding the functionality of electronic withdrawal
  • Opt out of vendor binding

If you are already familiar with XML, then you can start learning DocBook. If you don't understand XML, the good news is that learning DocBook will help you learn XML. Below are two must-read books for anyone new to DocBook.

DocBook - The Definitive Guide http://www.docbook.org/tdg/en/html/docbook.html

DocBook XSL - The Complete Guide http://www.sagehill.net/docbookxsl/index.html

But I think you came to this article first of all in order to open a DocBook file. Well, or at least convert.

DocBook in Writer (LibreOffice)

If you just need to quickly open the .docbook file, then you don't even need to install additional programs if you already have LibreOffice. Writer can open .docbook files. But I strongly discourage this option, because for some reason Writer skips completely random pieces of text without indicating it in any way. In the opened file, about 10% may be missing! Use this only as a last resort.

How to convert DocBook to PDF

Next, we will consider a universal program that can convert to many formats, including PDF. But if you just need PDF, then I highly recommend dblatex (DocBook to LaTeX Publishing), which can convert DocBook (XML and SGML) to DVI, PDF, PostScript using latex. The thing is, dblatex makes the most beautiful PDFs! These PDFs include a table of contents and other elements that are simply missing in the universal program.

Install the dblatex package.

Then just run a command like:

dblatex FILE.docbook

FILE.pdf will be created in the same folder.

Pandoc - universal document converter

If you need to convert files from one markup format to another, pandoc is your Swiss army knife. Pandoc can convert between numerous formats, a full list of them can be found on the program's website: https://pandoc.org/

Install the pandoc package.

Then run one of the following commands:

pandoc --from docbook --to docx --output myDocbook.docx myDocbook.xml

pandoc --from docbook --to odt --output myDocbook.odt myDocbook.xml

pandoc --from docbook --to latex --output myDocbook.pdf myDocbook.xml

pandoc --from docbook --to epub3 --output myDocbook.epub myDocbook.xml

pandoc --from docbook --to markdown --output myDocbook.md myDocbook.xml

pandoc --from docbook --to html --output myDocbook.html myDocbook.xml

As you might have already figured out:

  • --from is the original format
  • --to - the format to convert to
  • --output is the filename for the new format
  • myDocbook.xml - The original DocBook document.

Everything is very simple. But for PDF I recommend dblatex!

Other programs for converting DocBook

There are a few more applications that you may find useful if you want to convert a DocBook file to a different format.

  • kdoctools - Generate documentation from docbook.
  • poxml - Translates DocBook XML files using gettext po files
  • docbook2x is a software package that converts DocBook documents to the traditional Unix manual page format and the GNU Texinfo format.
  • docbook-to-man - batch converter from DocBook SGML to nroff/troff macros man.