Tag: Windows

How to connect a TV to a computer in Windows 11

Is it possible to connect a TV or a second monitor to a computer in Linux

This guide will show you how to connect a TV or a second monitor to a computer in Windows 11. It will also talk about the available settings and solutions to common problems that arise when connecting a TV to a computer.

If you are a Linux user, then see the articles:

What you need to connect a TV or an additional monitor to a computer

To connect a TV or a second monitor to a computer or laptop, you need:

  • TV with HDMI connector (all modern models) or monitor with HDMI connector (all monitors released in the last two decades)
  • a computer with an HDMI connector – almost all computers and laptops will fit
  • HDMI cable

Choosing an HDMI cable

I approached the choice of HDMI cable quite simply – I chose the cheapest with the right length, which I found in the store. In subsequent use, this cable fully satisfied my needs.

Despite its cheapness, this HDMI cable supports:

  • UHD 4K@2160P / 4K@60Hz / 4K HDR
  • High Speed HDMI 2.0
  • Gold plated contacts

Cable length 1.8 meters.

Apparently, these are already the minimum characteristics – perhaps more expensive models support higher resolutions and data transfer at higher speeds.

What TV can be connected to a computer

Using an HDMI cable, you can connect any TV with an HDMI connector. This connector is present on all TVs and monitors released in the last decade.

Older TVs without an HDMI connector can also be connected to a computer, but instead of an HDMI cable, you will need a wire with an adapter.

As for the technical characteristics of the TV (diagonal size, screen resolution, screen refresh rate, aspect ratio), this is not critical. That is, you do not have to select a TV model with the same characteristics as your monitor. Modern video cards support a variety of modes (screen resolutions and refresh rates), including the video card will work with a TV if the screen resolution is different from the monitor.

For example, the characteristics of my devices:

  • laptop monitor: 17", 1920×1080, 16:9, 120 Hz
  • TV (all specifications): 32", 1366x768p, 16:10, 60Hz

That is, these are two very different devices, but at the same time I had no problems when they worked together.

How to connect HDMI cable to TV

Plug the HDMI cable into the connectors of the computer (laptop) and TV.

Both on the computer and on the TV, there may be several HDMI connectors – remember the number of the selected connector.

Turn on your computer and TV.

Note: The HDMI cable can be connected when the computer and TV are already on.

Use the remote control to select “HDMI” as the input source on the TV.

If, after selecting HDMI as the signal source on the TV, you see the message “No Input Signal”, then:

  1. Select HDMI with a different number.
  2. Move the wire, it may not be firmly connected to the computer or TV socket.
  3. Make sure your computer is on.
  4. The monitor on the computer should not be turned off due to inactivity.

How to use a TV connected to a computer

There are two main modes:

  • join displays
  • mirror (duplication) of images on both displays

When displays are combined, the total space expands. That is, if you connected another 1920×1080 display to a computer with one 1920×1080 display, then now the resolution of your virtual screen becomes 3840×1080, if there are three such displays, the resolution will become 5760×1080. You can drag program windows from one display to another. Some apps and games support these wide virtual screens.

When the image is repeated (Mirror), the same image will be shown on both displays.

Among the displays, Primary stands out. This is the one connected first. A feature of the main display is that it shows desktop shortcuts, although this can be changed in the settings.

In the next video, the TV is connected to the computer. To play a YouTube video on a TV, the web browser window is dragged from the monitor to the TV.

Where are the settings for the second display and TV

Open the “Settings” app by pressing Win+i.

Go to the “Display” section.

Here you will see the display settings.

Select the display (or TV) you want to customize.

At the top of the settings window, you'll see a display layout.

The “Multiple displays” settings area appears only if multiple monitors (TVs) are connected to the computer, it contains settings for the computer's behavior when working with multiple displays. To see these settings, click on the arrow icon on the right side.

The following are settings common to all displays.

Then at the bottom of the window are settings specific to each display.

Select a monitor to change its settings.

The following settings are individual for each monitor:

  • Scale
  • Display resolution
  • Display orientation

When you go to the “Advanced display” settings section, you will also be able to adjust the refresh rate for each of the displays.

How to set Main (Primary) Monitor

By default, desktop shortcuts are shown on the Main Display. You can change, i.e. choose a new primary monitor. For this:

1. Open the “Settings” application, this can be done by pressing Win+i.

2. Go to the “Display” section.

3. Select the display you want to make Primary.

4. Expand the “Multiple displays” settings area.

5. Check the “Make this my main display” checkbox.

How to turn off the display or TV in the settings, without physically disconnecting

You can disconnect the HDMI cable from your TV or computer at any time, but this is not always convenient. In addition, you may want to turn off the computer monitor or the laptop's built-in monitor.

To turn off any monitor or TV in Settings, open the “Settings” app by pressing Win+i.

Go to the “Display” section.

Below the monitor layout, you will see a drop-down list of the following items:

  • Duplicate these displays
  • Extend these displays
  • Show only on 1
  • Show only on 2

Selecting the “Show only on…” option will cause the image to be displayed on only one display (or TV), and all others will be disabled.

A disabled monitor will stop working (it will no longer receive an input signal), but the disabled monitor will still be available in the settings. You can turn it back on at any time. To enable all monitors, select one of the following options from the drop-down list above:

  • Duplicate these displays
  • Extend these displays

How to make the TV show the same thing as the monitor

Open the “Settings” app by pressing Win+i.

Go to the “Display” section.

Under the monitor layout, select “Duplicate these displays” from the drop-down list.

As a result, the resulting settings for both monitors at once will be shown.

Now the image on the monitor and TV is the same:

You may notice that the picture on the TV is slightly cropped.

This may be due to the aspect ratio or screen resolution.

In my case, both the aspect ratio and the screen resolution of the monitor built into the laptop and the TV are different. Changing the screen resolution to what the TV has somewhat reduced the problem with cut edges.

How to make the TV become an extension of the monitor

Open the “Settings” app by pressing Win+i.

Go to the “Display” section.

Under the monitor layout, select “Extend these displays” from the drop-down list.

In this case, one of the monitors will be considered the main one. In this case, each of the monitors will show its own desktop, which, in fact, is one.

Why can't I drag the program window to the second screen

If you see two displays in the settings, but you can’t drag the program window to the TV or the second display, then try dragging the window to the other side. That is, if you, for example, are trying to drag a program window to the left side, then try dragging it to the right side instead.

The fact is that the physical location of the second monitor (TV) and its location in the settings can be different. To fix this, swap the monitors in the settings.

In addition to the location of the monitors to the left and right of each other, other options are possible.

You can place one of the monitors (or TVs) above the other.

In this case, the screen resolution and desktop area will change accordingly.

If you have many monitors, you can place them however you want, not all monitors need to be in a straight line horizontally. You can arrange them, for example, as 3×2, that is, two rows of three monitors.

How to make the Taskbar only show on the Main monitor

If you want the taskbar to be shown only on the Main monitor, then follow the steps below.

Open the “Settings” app by pressing Win+i.

Go to “Personalization” → “Taskbar”.

Expand the “Taskbar behavior” section.

Uncheck the “Show my taskbar on all displays” setting.

How to make the taskbar show on all monitors

If you want the taskbar to be shown on all connected monitors and TVs, then follow these steps.

Open the “Settings” app by pressing Win+i.

Go to “Personalization” → “Taskbar”.

Expand the “Taskbar behavior” section.

Check the box next to “Show my taskbar on all displays”.

After that, the Taskbar will be shown on all monitors.

How to set different desktop wallpapers for monitor and TV

You can set a different desktop wallpaper for all connected monitors and TVs.

To do this, open the “Settings” application, this can be done by pressing Win+i.

Go to “Personalization” → “Background”.

Right click on the photo you want to set as your desktop wallpaper. From the pop-up menu, select the number of the monitor for which you want to set this desktop background.

Now the desktop wallpaper on the monitor and TV is different.

How to identify displays

If you have multiple monitors and you are confused about their settings, then you can enable the display of the number on the screen of each monitor.

Open the “Settings” app by pressing Win+i.

Go to the “Display” section.

Click the “Identify” button, which is located under the schematic image of the monitors.

After that, each monitor and TV will show squares with display numbers in the settings.

Why is the sound played through a computer (laptop) and not through a TV

An HDMI cable can carry both video and audio. But even after connecting the TV with an HDMI cable, sound is still output from the laptop speakers or computer speakers.

To change the audio output source, go to the audio settings. To do this, open the “Settings” application, this can be done by pressing Win+i.

Go to the “Sound” section.

In the “Output” section, select “Audio for Displays”.

You can also expand the settings for each sound source by clicking the arrow symbol to the right of the source name. In the window that opens, you can fine-tune each sound source.

Why did the sound disappear after turning off the TV on the laptop (computer)

To change the audio output source, go to the audio settings. To do this, open the “Settings” application, this can be done by pressing Win+i.

Go to the “Sound” section.

In the “Output” section, select “Speakers”.

Setting the action when closing the laptop lid when using a second monitor

If you are using a laptop, closing the laptop lid when additional monitors are connected to it may not be what you expect. For example, when you close the laptop lid, the computer goes into Sleep mode or shuts down, but you expect to be able to work on a second monitor or watch TV connected to the computer.

To control how the computer behaves when the laptop lid is closed, open the “Control Panel”.

In the Control Panel, go to “Category” → “Small icons”.

Open the “Power Options” section.

Click on the “Choose what closing the lid does” link.

You can also go to this setting by running the command:

control /name Microsoft.PowerOptions /page pageGlobalSettings

In the window that opens, note that all actions are configured for two modes:

  • On battery
  • Plugged in

For the action for “When I close the lid”, select “Do nothing”.

How to prevent the monitor from turning off

If there is no activity for some time (for example, 10 minutes), the monitors will be turned off. You can disable the setting to turn off displays.

To control when monitors turn off due to inactivity, open the “Control Panel”.

In the “Control Panel”, go to “Category” → “Small icons”.

Open the “Power Options” section.

Click on the “Choose when to turn off the display” (or “Change when the computer sleeps” link).

You can also go to this setting by running the command:

control /name Microsoft.PowerOptions /page pagePlanSettings

In the window that opens, note that all actions are configured for two modes:

  • On battery
  • Plugged in

Set longer time intervals before turning off the monitor and entering sleep mode, or select “Never”.

Internet via Bluetooth in Linux: how to set up and why the speed is slow

In this tutorial, you will learn how to set up an Internet connection via Bluetooth in Linux, as well as why the Internet speed via Bluetooth is slow.

How to connect my computer to the Internet through my phone via Bluetooth

Internet via Bluetooth is one of the options for using a mobile phone to access the Internet from a computer. Looking ahead, we note that this is not the best option because:

1) the connection speed will be quite slow,

2) the setup, although generally simple, is slightly more complicated than other connection options

As alternative methods for accessing the Internet from a computer via a mobile phone, the following are recommended:

If your computer does not have Wi-Fi and you do not have a USB data cable for connecting your phone by wire, then the method described in this article is suitable for you – accessing the Internet via the mobile phone's Bluetooth tethering.

The connection algorithm is as follows:

  1. Pairing your phone and computer via Bluetooth
  2. Turning on the Bluetooth tethering on the phone
  3. Setting up a computer, which consists in connecting to the phone's Bluetooth tethering (selecting Bluetooth as the Access point)

So, let's look at how to connect a computer to the Internet through Bluetooth and your mobile phone in Linux.

Checking and starting the Bluetooth service

Connecting a mobile phone to a computer via Bluetooth is called pairing.

Check if the Bluetooth service is running on your computer – to do this, connect your Bluetooth device (if it is disconnected) and look for the Bluetooth icon next to the clock:

The Bluetooth service status can be checked on the command line:

systemctl status bluetooth

If the status of the service is other than “active (running)” and you do not see the Bluetooth tray icon, then you need to execute the following commands from this section. If the service is running, skip the following commands and skip directly to the next section to pair your phone with your computer.

Install required packages in Debian, Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Kali Linux and their derivatives:

sudo apt install bluez blueman

Install required packages in Arch Linux, Manjaro, BlackArch and their derivatives:

sudo pacman -S bluez bluez-utils pulseaudio-bluetooth blueman

The following commands are the same for all distributions.

Start bluetooth service:

sudo systemctl start bluetooth

Adding it to startup:

sudo systemctl enable bluetooth

Connecting a mobile phone to a computer via Bluetooth (phone pairing)

Turn on Bluetooth on your mobile phone.

Both a mobile phone and a computer can initiate pairing.

On your mobile phone or computer, search for Bluetooth devices.

If the devices do not see each other, then start searching for devices at the same time on the computer and mobile phone.

When the desired device is found, click on it to start pairing.

A prompt will appear on your mobile phone to establish pairing – agree to this proposal.

   

After that, on the computer it will be proposed to pair with the phone – agree (“Confirm”). If you are prompted to connect by someone else's device, then reject the request (“Deny”).

Immediately after pairing, or at the next connection, an authentication request will be made – the options are “Always accept” and “Accept”. The “Deny” button means rejecting the request.

After pairing, and also if you have selected the “Always accept authentication” option, the devices will connect to each other automatically as soon as Bluetooth is enabled on them.

Turning on the Bluetooth tethering

Go to the settings of your phone, this can be done by unrolling the curtain from top to bottom and clicking the gear icon.

Further, the name of the settings items may differ on different phone models, but the essence will be the same everywhere.

Go to the “Connections” section.

Find the item “Mobile Hotspot and Tethering” there.

Turn on “Bluetooth tethering”.

   

Connect to a Bluetooth tethering on a computer

Your computer's network settings should now show an option for Bluetooth, Mobile broadband, or similar.

Activate this connection so that the computer starts using the Internet via Bluetooth.

You can turn on the Bluetooth connection directly on the computer, bypassing the steps to turn on the Bluetooth tethering on the phone as shown above – in this case, the phone will prompt you to Allow Bluetooth tethering.

Why is the Internet speed slow over Bluetooth

When successfully connecting to the Internet via Bluetooth, the first thing you may notice is the speed of the connection. On the most modern Bluetooth 5.* protocols, it is up to 1.4 megabits per second (2 megabits per second at the moment). As you can see from the screenshot, the speedtest.net Internet connection speed test showed a speed of 1.66 megabits per second.

This is 210-220 kilobytes per second, if these units are more familiar to you. This is very slow, and on Bluetooth versions 4.* the speed is only 800 kilobits per second, that is, 2 times slower.

See also: How to find out the Bluetooth version for the adapter and peripherals in Linux

Thus, if the speed of the Internet via Bluetooth is too slow for you, all you can do to increase the speed of the Internet via Bluetooth is to switch to the Bluetooth 5.* protocol (both devices – the phone and the computer – must support this protocol). If this speed is not enough for you, then use Wi-Fi or data transfer via USB:

How to connect a computer to the Internet via Bluetooth in Windows

Table of contents

1. How to connect my computer to the Internet through my phone via Bluetooth

2. Connecting a mobile phone to a computer via Bluetooth (phone pairing)

3. Turning on the Bluetooth tethering

4. Connect to a Bluetooth tethering on a computer

5. How to Disconnect from a Bluetooth Connection

5.1 To turn off Bluetooth Internet on a computer

5.2 To turn off Bluetooth Internet on your mobile phone

6. “The connection with the Bluetooth network device failed” error

7. Why is the Internet speed slow over Bluetooth


In this tutorial, you will learn how to set up an Internet connection via Bluetooth in Windows, as well as why the Internet speed via Bluetooth is slow.

1. How to connect my computer to the Internet through my phone via Bluetooth

Internet via Bluetooth is one of the options for using a mobile phone to access the Internet from a computer. Looking ahead, we note that this is not the best option because:

1) the connection speed will be quite slow,

2) the setup, although generally simple, is slightly more complicated than other connection options

As alternative methods for accessing the Internet from a computer via a mobile phone, the following are recommended:

If your computer does not have Wi-Fi and you do not have a USB data cable for connecting your phone by wire, then the method described in this article is suitable for you – accessing the Internet via the mobile phone's Bluetooth tethering.

The connection algorithm is as follows:

  1. Pairing your phone and computer via Bluetooth
  2. Turning on the Bluetooth tethering on the phone
  3. Setting up a computer, which consists in connecting to the phone's Bluetooth tethering (selecting Bluetooth as the Access point)

So, let's look at how to connect a computer to the Internet through Bluetooth and your mobile phone in Windows.

2. Connecting a mobile phone to a computer via Bluetooth (phone pairing)

Turn on Bluetooth in Windows if you haven't already. This can be done by clicking on the network connection button next to the clock.

In Windows, right-click on the Bluetooth icon and select “Go to Settings” from the context menu that opens.

Click the “Add device” button.

In the window that opens, select “Bluetooth”.

Turn on Bluetooth on your mobile phone.

Start Scan for Bluetooth devices.

If the devices do not see each other, then start searching for devices at the same time on the computer and mobile phone. If you don't succeed the first time, try again.

When the desired device is found, click on it to start pairing.

Do the same on the computer.

A prompt will appear on your mobile phone to establish pairing – agree to this proposal.

Do the same on the computer – click the “Yes” button.

Make sure the connection was successful.

If the connection fails, try again.

3. Turning on the Bluetooth tethering

Go to the settings of your phone, this can be done by unrolling the curtain from top to bottom and clicking the gear icon.

Further, the name of the settings items may differ on different phone models, but the essence will be the same everywhere.

Go to the “Connections” section.

Find the item “Mobile Hotspot and Tethering” there.

Turn on “Bluetooth tethering”.

   

4. Connect to a Bluetooth tethering on a computer

Right-click on the “Network” icon and select “Network and Internet settings” in the context menu that opens.

In the window that opens, select “Advanced network settings”.

Then select “More network adapter options”.

In the Network Connections window, find Bluetooth Network Connection, right-click it and select View Bluetooth Network Devices.

In the “Devices and Printers” window that opens, find the phone, right-click on it. In the context menu, select “Connect using” and select “Access point” in the list that opens.

After that, the computer will be connected to the Internet via the Bluetooth of the mobile phone.

5. How to Disconnect from a Bluetooth Connection

To turn off Bluetooth Internet on a computer

Right-click on the “Network” icon (next to the clock) → Advanced network settings → More network adapter options → Right-click on “Bluetooth Network Connection” → select “View Bluetooth Network Devices” from the context menu.

In the “Devices and Printers” window that opens, find the phone, right-click on it. Select “Disconnect from device network” from the context menu.

To turn off Bluetooth Internet on your mobile phone

Go to Settings → Connections → Bluetooth.

Click on the gear of the connection you are using.

Turn off “Internet connection sharing”.

6. “The connection with the Bluetooth network device failed” error

At the stage “4. Connect to a Bluetooth tethering on a computer” you may encounter an error:

The connection with the Bluetooth network device failed. The device may already be connected to another computer, or it may need to be configured to accept connections from this computer. Consult your device documentation for further information.

It usually means that you did not follow the steps described in step “3. Turning on the Bluetooth tethering”.

On the phone, you will be prompted to “Allow Bluetooth tethering”, if you select “Allow”, then the reconnection will be successful.

7. Why is the Internet speed slow over Bluetooth

When successfully connecting to the Internet via Bluetooth, the first thing you may notice is the speed of the connection. On the most modern Bluetooth 5.* protocols, it is up to 1.4 megabits per second (2 megabits per second at the moment). As you can see from the screenshot, the speedtest.net Internet connection speed test showed a speed of 1.66 megabits per second.

This is 210-220 kilobytes per second, if these units are more familiar to you. This is very slow, and on Bluetooth versions 4.* the speed is only 800 kilobits per second, that is, 2 times slower.

See also: How to check Bluetooth version in Windows

Thus, if the speed of the Internet via Bluetooth is too slow for you, all you can do to increase the speed of the Internet via Bluetooth is to switch to the Bluetooth 5.* protocol (both devices – the phone and the computer – must support this protocol). If this speed is not enough for you, then use Wi-Fi or data transfer via USB:

How to use an Android phone to access the Internet on a computer without Wi-Fi

In the article “How to share mobile Internet with other phones and computers”, we already talked about how to use a mobile phone as an Access Point, but what if the computer does not have a Wi-Fi adapter or drivers are not installed for it?

This article is devoted to the answer to this question – it tells how to connect a computer to the mobile Internet using a USB cable.

In fact, this method is even simpler than creating a mobile hotspot.

How to Use Android Phone as USB Tethering in Windows

As you can see in the screenshot, the computer does not have an Internet connection.

Start by connecting your phone to your computer with a USB cable.

Then go to the settings of your phone, this can be done by unrolling the curtain from top to bottom and clicking the gear icon.

Further, the name of the settings items may differ on different phone models, but the essence will be the same everywhere.

Go to the “Connections” section.

Find the item “Mobile Hotspot and Tethering” there.

Turn on “USB tethering”.

Everything is ready – now your computer is online and can connect to the Internet. You can install Wi-Fi drivers or perform other network actions that you need.

No additional configuration is required on the computer. Now the computer is connected to the network – the USB tethering connection has a wired connection icon.

What to do if the USB modem item is not active or missing

The USB modem item may be inactive in two cases:

  1. The phone is not connected to the computer with a USB cable.
  2. USB cable does not support data transfer

Try another USB cable – the one that came with the phone should support data transfer.

Things to remember when using a mobile phone for the Internet

  1. Please note that if the phone is not connected to Wi-Fi, then mobile data will be used – if you do not have an unlimited data plan, then this will cost you money.
  2. You can connect your phone to a Wi-Fi network and still use it as a USB modem. The result is that your computer is using Wi-Fi through your phone, and not mobile data.
  3. If, when you turn on the USB modem, there is still no Internet access on the computer, then check if other network connections are disabled: for example, via Wi-Fi or by wire, the computer can be connected to a router that does not have Internet (disabled for non-payment or damaged cable).
  4. If you disconnect the phone from the USB cable, and then connect it to the computer again, you will need to turn USB tethering on again in the phone each time
  5. While the mobile phone is operating as a USB modem, you cannot send and receive files from it

How to enable file transfer between computer and phone

When the USB modem is enabled, it is not possible to exchange files between the computer and the phone.

In order to make it possible to copy files, you can disconnect the phone from the computer, and then reconnect and, when asked for permission to transfer files, provide it.

Another option is to disable the USB modem and enable data transfer (or only charging) in the phone settings without disconnecting it from the USB cable. To do this, open the curtain and expand the notification “USB tethering turned on”.

Click to configure the USB connection to the corresponding label.

Instead of “USB tethering” select “USB tethering” or “Charging phone only”.

How to check Bluetooth version in Windows

To determine the Bluetooth version on a Windows computer, you need to open Device Manager.

This can be done in several ways at once:

1) Click on the start menu and start typing ‘Device Manager’, click on the suggested match.

2) OR open the ‘Power User Menu’ using the Win+x keyboard shortcuts and select ‘Device Manager’ there

3) OR press Win+r and type to execute:

devmgmt.msc

In Device Manager, find Bluetooth and expand the list:

Locate the Bluetooth adapter. Its name will vary depending on your specific hardware, but you should usually look for something like ‘Intel Wireless Bluetooth’ or ‘Bluetooth Adapter’.

The name itself may already indicate the version of the supported Bluetooth standard (as in the screenshot below). If so, you can ignore the next step since you have the answer!

If you're having trouble finding the right item in the list, one thing's for sure; the element you need to find in the list will not contain the word ‘Enumerator’, so ignore all such entries.

Double-click on the device name to open the properties of the device that you consider to be the primary Bluetooth adapter. You'll know right away if you're in the right element as you should see an ‘Advanced’ tab with content similar to the one shown below.

On this screen, you need to find the ‘Firmware Version’, i.e. HCI and LMP (Link Manager Protocol).

For example, on the screen you can see the version ‘10.256’. Now we need to convert the LMP version of the Bluetooth adapter to the actual supported Bluetooth version. Please note that your LMP version may be a decimal number. As you can see from the LMP table, any LMP number starting with 10 means that your adapter supports version 5.1 inclusive of the Bluetooth standard.

Link Manager Protocol Version (LMP)

Bluetooth Core Specification 

LMP 0

Bluetooth Core Specification 1.0b (withdrawn)

LMP 1

Bluetooth Core Specification 1.1 (withdrawn)

LMP 2

Bluetooth Core Specification 1.2 (withdrawn)

LMP 3

Bluetooth Core Specification 2.0 + EDR (withdrawn)

LMP 4

Bluetooth Core Specification 2.1 + EDR (deprecated, to be withdrawn)

LMP 5

Bluetooth Core Specification 3.0 + HS (deprecated, to be withdrawn)

LMP 6

Bluetooth Core Specification 4.0

LMP 7

Bluetooth Core Specification 4.1

LMP 8

Bluetooth Core Specification 4.2

LMP 9

Bluetooth Core Specification 5.0

LMP 10

Bluetooth Core Specification 5.1

LMP 11

Bluetooth Core Specification 5.2

The latest Bluetooth versions at the moment are 5.2 and 5.3. Still current specs 4.0/4.1 and later. If your adapter is older, using a new Bluetooth adapter on your computer may help improve the quality of your Bluetooth connection. If you are using devices that send a lot of data, such as constantly streaming audio or video, you really need to make sure that both the adapter and the device are compatible with at least Bluetooth version 3.0 + HS, and preferably 4.0 and later.

For reference: in version 5.*, the data transfer rate is doubled compared to 4.*.

How to install Windows 11 without a Microsoft account

The Windows 11 and Windows 10 installer prompts you to create an online user account with Microsoft. Some functions of the operating system are tied to an online account, but many users prefer only an offline account. This guide will show you how to install Windows 11 without signing up for a Microsoft account.

How to install Windows 11 with a local account

The installation start is identical whether you want to use an online or offline account.

In the How would you like to set up this device step, select “Set up for personal use” and click the “Next” button.

In order not to create a Microsoft account, but to use an offline account, at the stage shown in the screenshot, scroll down and click “Sing-in options”.

Find and select “Offline account” option.

You will be persuaded, but click “Skip for now”.

Think of and enter a username.

Think up, remember and enter the password. If you want to log in to the computer without a password, then leave this field blank.

Do not rush to click “Next” at this stage.

Scroll through the list carefully – you may want to disable some/all options.

If you have disabled all options, then the “Next” button will change to “Accept”.

UEFI does not see installed Linux (SOLVED)

How to add a new boot option to UEFI

UEFI usually automatically detects operating system loaders on media connected to a computer. But sometimes UEFI does not show all available options. Let's see how to add a new option to the UEFI boot menu.

For example, I plugged a flash drive with two operating systems – Windows 11 and Kali Linux – into my computer USB port, pressed ESC during boot to select boot options. The screenshot shows two options:

  • Linux OS on internal drive
  • Windows OS on a flash drive

If I select the first option, then it will boot from the internal disk, if the second, then Windows will boot. There is no way to boot Kali Linux from a flash drive.

Go to UEFI settings.

To come to the advanced UEFI settings, on my laptop I use the F7 key.

Go to the “Boot” tab.

As you can see, two boot options are selected and I can add additional ones – both from the drop-down list and new ones that are not in the list.

Among the options available in the drop-down list, there is no Kali Linux from a flash drive.

I select “Add New Boot Option”.

In the “Path for boot option” field, I need to specify the path to the /EFI/kali/grubx64.efi file.

I select a USB flash drive (there is a line “USB” in the path).

Select the “EFI” folder.

Select the “kali” folder.

Select the “grubx64.efi” file.

In the “Add boot option” field, I enter a name for this boot option and click the “Create” button.

The new boot option has been successfully created.

I add this option to the boot menu.

I save the settings made and restart the computer.

The option to boot “Kali” from a flash drive is now available.

The Linux bootloader is aware of the existence of Windows 11 installed and adds the ability to boot it into its menu.

When you select the “Windows Boot Manager” item, Windows 11 is booted from a USB flash drive.

When choosing to boot Kali Linux, you are required to enter a password for the encrypted partition on which the /home folder is located.

Further, work from a USB flash drive in Kali Linux continues as usual.

What to do if there are no settings for adding boot options in UEFI (BIOS)

UEFI varies from manufacturer to manufacturer: some have a lot of settings, some don't. It is possible that UEFI does not see the Linux bootloader and does not have the option to add a new item to the boot menu.

In this case, you can use a different approach. The essence of the method is that any UEFI by default tries to load the bootloader with the /EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI path. This is the so-called fallback path to the bootloader. Therefore, it is enough to rename the existing path to fallback for UEFI to start loading it.

For example, the path to the Kali Linux bootloader is /EFI/kali/grubx64.efi. In this case, you need to rename the “kali” folder to “BOOT” and the “grubx64.efi” file to “BOOTX64.EFI”.

These files are located on a hidden partition with the FAT32 file system.

Renaming files and folders on an EFI partition in Linux

To make these changes on Linux, mount the drive with read/write permissions and rename the directory and file.

Let's see the names of disks and partitions:

sudo fdisk -l

The partition with the EFI System on which we want to make changes is called /dev/sdb1, let’s mount it:

mkdir /tmp/efi
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /tmp/efi

Now rename the folder and file sequentially.

sudo mv /tmp/efi/EFI/kali/ /tmp/efi/EFI/BOOT/
sudo mv /tmp/efi/EFI/BOOT/grubx64.efi /tmp/efi/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI

When finished, unmount the /dev/sdb1 partition:

sudo umount /dev/sdb1

Renaming files and folders on an EFI partition in Windows

Open the Windows Command Prompt with administrator rights. To do this, press Win+x and select “Windows Terminal (Admin)”.

In the command line, run the program and wait for it to open:

diskpart

At the DISKPART prompt, type:

list disk

We need to find out what number the boot disk has. In my case it is 0.

Now enter the following command, replacing 0 with the number of your boot disk:

sel disk 0

Now the following command will list the volumes:

list vol

This is a very important step! We need to find out what number the partition with EFI has. The EFI partition has a FAT32 file system and does not have a letter.

In my screenshot, the EFI volume is number 2.

Run the following command, replacing 2 with your partition number:

sel vol 2

Now this volume needs to be assigned a letter. It can be any unoccupied letter.

assign letter=V:

Exit DISKPART:

exit

Close Command Prompt.

To edit the names of folders and files on the disk, administrator rights are required. To do this, for example, I run Double Commander with administrator rights.

See also: Free analogue of Total Commander

After that, you can edit the EFI partition like regular folders and files.

Error “The code execution cannot proceed because VCRUNTIME140.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem” (SOLVED)

When you try to run the program, you may encounter the following errors:

  • The code execution cannot proceed because VCRUNTIME140.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem
  • The code execution cannot proceed because VCRUNTIME140_1.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem
  • The code execution cannot proceed because MSVCP140.dll was not found. Reinstalling the program may fix this problem

That is, the program cannot run because the VCRUNTIME140.dll, VCRUNTIME140_1.dll, and MSVCP140.dll files are not found.

In this case, it is useless to follow the prompts of the system and reinstall the program.

Also, in no case should you look for the library files VCRUNTIME140.dll and MSVCP140.dll on dubious sites and try to add them to the system.

The reason for the error is that the program requires Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022. This is a completely free set of libraries that you can download from the official Microsoft website. This file is the runtime for programs compiled with Visual Studio. This redistributable package contains all required libraries, including VCRUNTIME140.dll and MSVCP140.dll.

You can download Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022 from the official website at the following link: https://aka.ms/vs/17/release/VC_redist.x64.exe (this is a 64-bit version) and https:// aka.ms/vs/17/release/VC_redist.x86.exe (this is the 32-bit version)

Run the downloaded file by double-clicking, accept the license terms and complete the installation.

Immediately after installation, the problem with the missing files VCRUNTIME140.dll and MSVCP140.dll should disappear and the program that requires them should work as expected, without errors.

VCRUNTIME140.dll still not found after installing Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022

If after installing Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022 you still get an error with the missing VCRUNTIME140.dll file, then this means that in addition to the already installed version, you need to install a version of a different processor architecture.

For example, you installed the 64-bit version of Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022, but you get a VCRUNTIME140.dll file missing error, which means that the application that needs the specified file is 32-bit and you need to install the 32-bit version of Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2022. Links to both versions are given above.

How to clean up Windows 11 without additional programs

Do I need to clean and optimize Windows 11 after installation

Operating systems, be it Windows, Android or even Linux, can be used to promote products and services. Therefore, at present, one of the main questions after reinstalling the OS is not how to install new programs, but how to remove pre-installed ones. For unnecessary, useless software that is installed against the will of the user, they came up with the term bloatware.

These unnecessary applications are often added to startup and consume system resources (RAM and CPU resources), take up space on the screen and even in the quick launch bar, they are automatically updated, sometimes at the wrong time, for example, when using a limited Internet connection.

There are several tools for removing unnecessary software, cleaning and optimizing the system for Windows, but how useful and harmless are they?

To begin with, I would strongly advise against running executable files on your computer from any source other than those that you are absolutely sure of.

There are open source tools available, such as a Windows cleanup script written in PowerShell. In my opinion, all these tools, even open source ones, are of little use and may even be harmful.

In most cases, it is enough to make a few settings and remove a few tools from autorun to get rid of bloatware in Windows. As for the dozens and even hundreds of other actions that Windows cleaning tools perform, they are mostly either useless or can cause unforeseen consequences.

In this note, we will look at how to remove unnecessary apps from startup and how to remove useless programs and icons from the quick launch bar.

Cleaning Windows 11 after installation without additional programs

This is what the Taskbar and System Tray look like in a freshly installed Windows 11:

Other than the Start menu, I don't need any of these icons! Let's see how to customize the quick launch bar (Taskbar) for yourself.

Checking and cleaning startup

Press Win+x and select Task Manager.

Click on the “More details” button, go to the “Startup” tab, sort by “Status” and disable applications that you do not need in autorun.

To remove an application from startup, right-click on it and select “Disable”.

The changes you make will take effect on the next boot.

How to remove icons from the taskbar

To customize the Taskbar, right-click on it and click “Taskbar settings”.

In the window that opens, find “Taskbar items” and disable the ones you don't need.

For example like this:

After that, the taskbar began to look like this:

I don't need a Microsoft browser (I use Chrome and Firefox instead), I don't need Windows Explorer (I use Double Commander instead), and I don't need the Microsoft Store in Quick Access. To remove all these items, right-click on them and select “Unpin from taskbar”.

See also: Free analogue of Total Commander

All that's left is this:

To add applications that you frequently use to the Taskbar, open the application, right-click on the application's icon in the Taskbar, and select “Pin to taskbar”.

My selection of the most used programs:

Script to connect and disconnect from OpenVPN depending on server availability

Task:

Branch subnets are connected via OpenVPN. All clients connect to the server and routes to the Internet are set through the OpenVPN server. Everything works, but there is a problem. If the OpenVPN server for some reason loses Internet connection, then all other branches also lose Internet access, because the traffic does not go through its gateway, but through the OpenVPN server. Is there any way to write a script to:

1. If there was no connection to the OpenVPN server, the routes were restored and worked through their own gateway.

2. Once every 2-3 minutes the client would try to connect to the OpenVPN server.

3. When the connection is restored, the routes would be registered again through the OpenVPN server.

Solution:

In theory, it is quite possible to write a script in Bash (for Linux) or PowerShell (for Windows) that would ping the OpenVPN server and if the server is online connecting to it or if the connection is already present, it would do nothing. And if the OpenVPN server is offline, then it would disconnect from it or do nothing if the server is already offline. On Linux, such a script can be added to startup and then run regularly using Systemd timers or Cron. In Windows, too, this can be solved using the Windows Task Scheduler.

But, IMHO, this is a radically wrong approach. It is necessary to strive to ensure that the OpenVPN server is always online. Because for some reason it is needed in the work of users if they connect to it, right? And if so, then when users disconnect from OpenVPN, there will be failures in connecting to local resources.

And nevertheless, here are examples of scripts.

For Windows, the script is written in PowerShell, create the vpn.ps1 file and copy it into it (replace the IP address of the OpenVPN server and the path to the configuration file with yours):

# OpenVPN server IP address
$openvpnIP='185.117.153.79'
# path to the configuration file for connecting the client to the OpenVPN server
$openvpnFILE='C:\Users\MiAl\client1.ovpn'

if (Test-Connection -TargetName $openvpnIP -IPv4 -Count 1 -Quiet -TimeoutSeconds 1)
{
	'OpenVPN server is up'
	if (Get-Process | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "openvpn" })
	{
		'OpenVPN connection is active.  Nothing to do'
	}
		else
	{
		Write-Warning 'No OpenVPN connections, trying to connect...'
		 & "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\bin\openvpn.exe" --config $openvpnFILE &
	}
}
else
{
	Write-Warning 'OpenVPN server is down'
	if (Get-Process | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "openvpn" })
	{
		'OpenVPN connection is active, let us kill it'
		Get-Process | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "openvpn" } | Select-Object -First 1 | Stop-Process
	}
	else
	{
		Write-Warning 'No OpenVPN connections. Nothing to do'
	}
}

Check like this:

.\vpn.ps1

The OpenVPN server is online, so the script connects to it and does nothing on subsequent checks. Checking the client's IP shows that Internet access is really through OpenVPN:

OpenVPN is offline, so the script disconnects from it. On subsequent checks, the script does nothing until the OpenVPN server is available. When OpenVPN is online again, a connection is made to it.

Use Windows Task Manager to run your script like this:

powershell -File vpn.ps1 -WindowStyle Hidden

Furthermore create the script that it runs under a specific user account and not only when that user is logged on. Otherwise you'll see a console window.

Sample script for Linux – create a vpn.sh file and copy into it:

#!/bin/bash

# OpenVPN server IP address
openvpnIP='185.117.153.79'
# path to the configuration file for connecting the client to the OpenVPN server
openvpnFILE='/home/mial/bin/OpenVPNassistent-конфигурации/configs/client1.ovpn'

isOpenVPNActive=`pgrep openvpn`

timeout 1 ping -c 1 $openvpnIP > /dev/null;
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
	echo 'OpenVPN server is up'
	if [ -z "$isOpenVPNActive" ]; then
		echo 'No OpenVPN connections, trying to connect.'
		sudo openvpn "$openvpnFILE" &
	else
		echo 'OpenVPN connection is active. Nothing to do'	 
	fi	
else
	echo 'OpenVPN server is down'
	if [ -z "$isOpenVPNActive" ]; then
		echo 'No OpenVPN connections. Nothing to do.'
	else
		echo 'OpenVPN connection is active, let us kill it.'
		kill "$isOpenVPNActive"
	fi 
fi

Run like this:

sudo bash vpn.sh

The OpenVPN server is online, so the script connects to it and does nothing on subsequent checks. Checking the client's IP shows that Internet access is really through OpenVPN. OpenVPN is offline, so the script disconnects from it. On subsequent checks, the script does nothing until the OpenVPN server is available. When OpenVPN is online again, a connection is made to it.

To run regularly, use systemd's .timer or cron.

See also:

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